Lecture 12 & 13 Notes- Sawey Contemporary Issues in Biology
Lecture 12 & 13 Notes- Sawey Contemporary Issues in Biology BIOL 10003-045 (30055)
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bowen Notetaker on Friday February 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 10003-045 (30055) at Texas Christian University taught by Michael Sawey in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Contemporary Issues in Biology (Lec w/Lab) in Biology at Texas Christian University.
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Date Created: 02/19/16
Bio Lectures 12 amp 13 Week of 222l2016 By Bowen B Lecture 12 Kidneys and the Urinary System 0Protein 0 When protein is broken down in the body it results in nitrogenous waste that must be eliminated from the body 0 Remember that proteins are large organic molecules made of many amino acids bonded together with peptide bonds 0 Each amino acid have a nitrogen group as part of their structure When a protein is broken down for energy the nitrogen groups are converted into ammonia which is toxic to the body 0Circulatory System 0 It is important that ammonia gets broken down into a less toxic form The liver converts ammonia into urea which is less toxic to the body The urea is then transported through the bloodstream to the kidneys where it can be extracted from the body 0Urea 0 Urea is less toxic than ammonia and can be transported in the blood to kidney 0 While urea is less toxic to the body than ammonia it can convert uric acid and cause pH shifts in the body 0Formation of Urine o The formation of urine begins when proteins are broken down by cells throughout the body resulting in ammonia being produced 0 The ammonia is converted to urea by the liver 0 The urea is then transported to the kidneys where it is removed from the blood and incorporated into urine 0The Urinary System 0The kidneys are located within the muscular wall of the middle back just below the ribcage 0 The kidneys are the site of urine formation 0 The urine that is formed in the two kidney then travel down the two ureters towards the urinary bladder where it is stored 0 Urine exits the body by way of the single urethra 0Functions of Kidneys 0 Filter waste from your blood 0 Adjust blood levels of many substances such as potassium 0 Conserve or excrete water from your system depending on your body s needs Anatomy of the Kidney 0 Blood that is rich in waste products travels towards the kidneys by way of the aorta The right and left renal artery branches off of the aorta and enters each of the kidneys Once inside the kidneys the renal arteries branch many times into smaller and smaller vessels until they nally form millions of capillary beds that are closely associated with microscopic tubes within the kidney called nephrons The nephron is the small tubule that receives the components of the blood that will ultimately form urine Urine Formation by Nephron 0 Blood pressure forces water glucose amino acids and urea from capillaries into nephron 0 Glucose and amino acids are reabsorbed into blood from nephron 0 Some water is reabsorbed into blood 0 Urine is urea and salt concentrated in water Urine moves from the collecting ducts through the kidney pelvis into the ureter 0The ureters transport the urine to the urinary bladder 0 Finally through the urethra Regulation of Water Balance 0 Brain constantly monitors water concentration in the bloodstream If you have too little water in your body your pituitary releases more ADH 0ADH travels in blood to nephron 0 ADH causes more water to leave the urine and remain in the bloodstream 0 Role of ADH 0 More ADH retain more water in your body which raises blood pressure 0 Less ADH water leaves your body in urine which lowers blood pressure Alcohol Effects 0Alcohol suppresses ADH production by the pituitary 0 Less ADH means more urine produced Excess water leaving the body leads to dehydration 0 Hangovers 0 Due in part to dehydration caused by lack of ADH Kidney Stones o Kidney stones are a common problem with the urinary system 0 Four different types of stones can form due to various causes Calcium stones uric acid stones bacterial caused stones and cysteine stones all form in the pelvis of the kidney and then must travel down the ureters to the bladder and out the urethra 0 Cause pain when they pass down the ureters to the bladder and urethra Treatments for Kidney Stones 0 Small stones may pass with no pain 0 Larger stones may pass but cause extreme pain 0 Stones that are too large to pass may require surgical treatment Symptoms of Kidney Infections 0 Frequent urination Urge to urinate but only small about of urine produced Pain and burning when urinating Cloudy urine with strong odor Pus or blood in urine Fever Cause of Kidney Infection 0 UTI urinary tract infections can occur when bacteria gets into the urethral opening and travels up the urethra towards the bladder Why do women have more kidney infections 0 Bacteria quicker access to the bladder 0 Intercourse increases the risk in women Diagnosis and Treatment 0 Doctors check urine for white and red blood cells and bacteria 0 Bacteria may be grown in culture to determine which antibiotic will work the best 0 A variety of antibiotics can be used for treatment 0 Symptoms of kidney infections may subside within 1 or 2 days cute kidney failure 0 Sudden loss of your kidneys ability to perform their main function of eliminating excess uid and electrolytes as well as waste material from your blood Kidney transplant 0 One treatment for kidney failure 0The challenge is nding a match which is a donor with a similar enough protein 0 ID ID ID ID A Lecture 13 Smoking Emphysema and Lung Cancer 0 Why we Breath 0 Breathing allows oxygen in the air to move into the lungs and then pass into the bloodstream and be carried to the cells for cellular respiration and carbon dioxide produced from cellular respiration to move into the blood to move to the lungs where it can pass out of the body into the atmosphere Cellular Respiration 0 Process by which energy of sugar glucose is converted into the energy of ATP 0 Summary of ATPADP cycle 0 ATP is a high energy molecule 0 ADP is a low energy molecule 0 Muscle contractions use ATP 0 Cellular respiration in mitochondria convert ADP back to ATP Respiratory Tract o The ultimate goal of the respiratory system is to take oxygen 0 O O 0 from the atmosphere and get it into the bloodstream and to take carbon dioxide from the bloodstream and release it into the atmosphere Gas Exchange in Lungs Alveoli are the sites of gas exchange The total surface area of all the alveoli is equal to the surface of a tennis court The alveolar sac is composed of many small alveoli air sacs which have extremely thin membranes Capillaries from the pulmonary artery wrapped around each alveoli It is at this point that carbon dioxide can exit the blood capillary and enter into the alveolar sac and oxygen from the alveolar sac can cross into the blood capillary Healthy lungs have 300 million alveoli Inspiration and Expiration O 0 Inspiration is an active process involving muscles throughout the chest region Helps draw air into the lungs o Expiration is a passive act and as the muscles relax the air is pushed out of the lungs Circulatory System 0 O 0 Blood is pumped out the right side of the heart and travels in arteries to the lungs Blood enters the capillaries surrounding the alveoli of lungs Oxygen moves from alveoli into blood and bonds to hemoglobin of red blood cells Blood returns to left side of heart via veins Blood pumped out of left side of heart into aorta to the body Blood travels in arteries to capillaries serving cells Capillary system 0 At the arterial end the blood pressure is high and molecules leave the capillaries At the venous end the pressure is lower and molecules enter into the capillary Oxygen leaves the capillary and goes out into the cells and carbon dioxide goes into the capillaries Smoking 0 O Destroys alveoli and reduces capability for gas exchange When alveoli break down the result is less surface area for gas exchange Emphysema 0 disease in which there is permanent scarring of the lung tissue and so much surface area is lost that the lungs operate very poorly Eighty percent of cases of emphysema are caused by smoking Without alveoli person lacks enough oxygen for cellular respiration and production of ATP Compounded by carbon monoxide in smoke competing with oxygen for sites on hemoglobin Lung Cancer 0 Lung cancer kills more Americans than breast cancer colon cancer and prostate cancer combined 0 87 of cases of lung cancer result directly from smoking Cilia 0 Microscopic structures called cilia 0 Line the inside of air passages o Sweep mucus and particles up to pharynx so they can be coughed out o Cilia are destroyed by tar in cigarettes Smoke particles 0 Contain 40 known carcinogens which are trapped in the lungs and damage DNA leading to mutations and cancer Lung Cancer 0 Small tumors that begin in the lung tissue cannot be detected by xray screening 0 Lung cancer has a relatively low veyear survival rate 0 Only 15 of those diagnosed with lung cancer will survive for 5 years or more 0 Lung cancer deaths have increased dramatically in both men and women over the last 6 decades Withdrawal Symptoms o Headache O O Nausea Falling heart rate and blood pressure Insomnia lrritability Dif culty concentrating Anxiety Increased hunger Craving for sweets and tobacco Bene ts of Quitting O O O Quitting doesn t completely negate the effects of smoking Bene ts of quitting depend on how long you smoked and how heava Generally after 10 years of abstinence a quitter is only half as vulnerable as someone who continues to smoke Stops exposing others to second hand smoke Secondhand Smoke 0 O Mixture of smoke given off by the burning end of a cigarette and smoke exhaled from the lungs of smokers Nonsmokers exposed to secondhand smoke are considered passive smokers If you can t quit O O O 0 Do not smoke indoors No not smoke in cars with nonsmokers present Do not smoke around children Test the home of smokers for radon
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