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Week 5 Notes

by: Lorena Roberts
Lorena Roberts
GPA 3.5

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Here are the notes from Tuesday and Today!
Intro Research Methods/Stats
Dr. Greer Fox
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lorena Roberts on Friday February 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CFS 395 001 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Dr. Greer Fox in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Intro Research Methods/Stats in Child and Family Studies at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.

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Popular in Child and Family Studies


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Date Created: 02/19/16
February 23, 2016 Reliability and Validity: Validity (Construct, Internal, External) Background: Constructs or Variables  Abstract phenomenon that researchers infer from observable behavior  Invented or asserted for scientific purposes  Examples: Personality, love, ambivalence, happiness An Example:  Studying the effect of a training program on verbal skills of mildly developmentally disabled children  Measure of verbal ability has questionable reliability and validity  Study yields incorrect conclusions (do no observe differences, even though program was effective) Reliability: a measure is consistent Validity: a measure measures “what it should’ Conceptual definition of reliability: a more formal way to understand reliability Observed score = true score + error score (which is made up of both method and trait error) The true score is a theoretical score (this is a hypothetical value) Perfect reflection of true value for individual Error score: Difference between observed and true score Factors that cause a discrepancy between the true score and observed score Method error are due to characteristics of the measurement instrument or testing situation (unclear instructions?) Trait error is due to individual characteristics (person didn’t study enough for test; felt sick or bored while filling out questionnaire) Increasing reliability: Can minimize method error by: Eliminating unclear questions Standardizing the instructions How reliability is measured: Reliability is often measured using a correlation coefficient Correlation between scores on two tests More similar the scores, higher the correlation and reliability Types of reliability: Test-retest Inter-rater Internal Consistency Validity: a valid test means it measures what it is designed to measure (page 100) February 25, 2016 Survey Research: When is survey research the best method available?  When describing a population too large to observe directly, when measuring attitudes, when collecting original data, and when no other data base exists that is suitable for your research purpose Questionnaire: instrument designed to elicit information that will be useful for analysis Survey:  Descriptive, exploratory, and explanatory topics are appropriate for survey research Unit of Analysis: Individuals usually (although it is possible to study organizations) Respondent: the person who provides data for analysis by responding to a survey questionnaire Oven versus Closed Drawbacks: Open-ended: what do you do with all the data? Close-ended: what if you leave out an important category? You should avoid double-barreled questions, negative items, and biased items (short items are best) Acceptable Response Rates: 50% adequate 60% good 70% very good Note that inferential statistics assume 100% response


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