Hist 202, Week 4 & 5 notes
Hist 202, Week 4 & 5 notes HIST 202
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Popular in History
This 38 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chase Goodman on Friday February 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 202 at Ball State University taught by Ed Krzemienski in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 66 views. For similar materials see History in History at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 02/19/16
HIST 202 1/13/2016 The Gilded Age 18771901 o The Gilded Ages were named after Mark Twain o Gilded Refers to a very thin layer of gold that you cover a cheaper object with to make it look like solid gold On the surface if you were to look at the years 1877 1901 it would look amazing, like wood being gilded But beneath the surface it was not golden The gap becomes immense in the gilded ages; between people who have cash and people who don’t o Ulysses S. Grant (1822 – 1885) Serves as president from 1869 – 1877 Notorious general from the Civil War Leads army to victory over General Lee War Hero turns president (Happens often) Runs as a Republican The Republican began as the party of Lincoln o They were against Slavery Republican = $ They help the big businesses Went to West Point militarily academy Didn’t do well in School “cronies” Somebody that works for you and tells you what you want to hear o Political Corruption An unbelievable amount of Political Corruption. Whiskey Ring A scandal of unimaginable proportions Deals with Whiskey Distillers o St. Louis is the capital of Whiskey Distilleries are supposed to pay taxes General John McDonald o Comes up with a plan o He collects money from the Distilleries and says it is “Tax” when he is actually stealing it o He steals the government that he is collecting $2 m/year in taxes o He knows that president Grant is really lazy, and that he doesn’t do much unless his secretary warns him General Orville Babcock o He is Pres. Grants secretary o McDonald bribes him, because he is the only link between Grant and the Distilleries McDonald and Babcock are stealing tax money from the Government After Grant found out, he does something common o “If you prosecute Babcock or McDonald, there will be no immunity” o Which means that you will basically get the same punishment as Babcock and McDonald People lose faith in the government Secretary of War William Belknap involved in the Belknap Affair He notices what is going on in the Whiskey Ring He is involved in Indian Trading Post o Government trading post where an Indian would come and trade items o You could buy Indian artifacts and sell them for a lot of money He begins accepting money for the positions in the trading posts o The most he gets from any one trading posts is $6000 o Also there are hundreds of these trading posts Belknap was also a General in the Civil War The political corruption is the defining part of this era Only gets worse as more money is being made 1/15/16 Gilded Age o Ulysses S. Grant set the trend for political corruption, even though he wasn’t responsible, he let it happen Top 5 worst presidents of alltime o Political Corruption At this time it was known by the citizens of the United States o Elected in 1876 Rutherford B. Hayes (18221893) He is the same as Grant in some ways, but the exact opposite in other ways Both were republicans, served as a general in the north of the Civil War He was born in Ohio in 1822, same as U.S. Grant He was pure, unlike Ulysses S. Grant He never swore, never drank, never served alcohol at the White House He is a devout Christian o His Secretary of War plays the piano while his cabinet sings songs Lucy Webb Hayes Became a symbol of purity for the US Government Nicknamed Lemonade Lucy The political corruption continues in his time of office (only serves 1 term) Post Office Scandal “Star Route Frauds” o People in charge of the post office in this region asked the US government an unordinary amount of money They would ask for more money than they need, claiming they were using it for Post Office Services, but they pocketed it Rutherford B. Hayes tries and convicts the people in this scandal o This shows that no matter who is in charge that scandals like these will happen Spoils Systems He put personal friends and people he knew into government jobs o Instead of the best qualified person for that job This system is a HUGE problem People are aware of what is going on o It is in the Newspapers and any media o 1883: Civil Service Act This was to combat the spoils system They had requirements that you had to be able to do You had to be literate o Was the first requirement This only applied to 10% of all of the government jobs There is still room for corruption, about 90% of it is wide open for corruption Started off as a small law, to pass by congress, hoping they could expand it later o 1884: Election Centers on the idea of the Civil Service Act Republican James G. Blaine (Maine) Old Ulysses S. Grant appointee Politically Corrupt o He was a part of the Whiskey Ring o He was a part of the Belknap Scandal Democrat Grover Cleveland (Buffalo, New York) Running on the platform that if he is elected he will expand Civil Service o As soon as he is elected he wants to make it 50% Eventually wants to make it that all governmental employees have to take the Civil Service exam This election is heated If they select James Blaine they are going to continue down the path of political corruption If they select Grover Cleveland he will try to make people in the Government responsible Grover Cleveland had an illegitimate child with a woman he wasn’t married to He was attacked by this politically If you were able to vote at this time, most often when you went to the voting booth they had a paper where it would just say Republican or Democrat You would have to ask for an individual paper with all of the people running separately Republicans throw their support to Grover Cleveland because they have seen enough of this Political Corruption Because they are in favor of Civil Service act These people are known as “Mugwumps” o They are just Republicans that vote for Cleveland It throws the election in favor of Grover Cleveland Grover Cleveland wins the election in 1884 o 1884: Grover Cleveland wins He expands civil service act to 50% to start off with o 1887: Interstate Commerce Act Deals with the Railroads At this time, the Railroads were everything Everything that had to move, traveled by railroad A large portion of the Railroads were owned by the family Vanderbilt They are one of the richest families in the history of the world They had a monopoly in the railroad system o Which means you have to pay whatever they charged John D. Rockefeller In order to help him out, if any small oil company wanted to transfer oil, he would raise the price a lot Vanderbilt’s would put other smaller oil companies out of Business and John D. Rockefeller would buy them out This is scary for the government because Rockefeller and the Vanderbilt’s could close down any business they want to Railroads are a private system now Interstate Commerce Commission They are supposed to make they are charging fair prices for everyone Political corruption o This also effected the interstate commerce commission o The Vanderbilt’s bribed the book keepers to make it “look” fair o 1890: Sherman Antitrust Act A trust is a monopoly This act is set up to try and eliminate Monopolies The purpose is to give the people of the United States some kind of recourse If they government doesn’t listen to the people, then no one will o STATUS QUO All of the presidents were stuck on this Status Quo = maintain the same o Benjamin Harrison (1889 – 1893) From Indiana He is referred to as cold and boring He is part of the Bearded President era He doesn’t want change the way things are ran, wants to maintain the Status Quo 1/20/16 Economic Development o After the Civil War (1865 – 1890) 35 thousand railroad track miles in 1865 to 115 thousand in 1890 In 1890 they finished the TransContinental railroad (From NY to SF) Which means Goods and Commodities can get anywhere they want to Railroads is the main way of travel from people to products Development of steel explodes Railroad tracks are made of steel, the train made of steel, everything made of steel Steel is the heaviest part in the economy You can make anything out of steel Lighter Industries Modern innovations o The typewriter o Telephone They also add for employment o Development of clerical services These modern innovations also lead to more woman in the workplace o Because woman don’t get paid as much as men George Eastman o Creates the first personal camera Kodak Student in Ohio finds a way to refine aluminum Gillette makes the first disposable razor Robert Johnson o Creates the modern BandAid People already came up with it, but he patented it o And also Johnson & Johnson company They are still a company Whitcomb Judson o Creates the modern zipper Thomas Edison o Greatest inventor & stealer of the Gilded Ages He would do the paperwork for other people’s inventions All of these little things bring in a ton of money for the economy No income tax at this time! Government doesn’t know how to handle the extremely rich people o “Robber Barons” Americas aristocracy Not born into, but “robbed” into Very wealthy people James “ Jubilee Jim” Fiske He did not invent anything or make an industry better, he made his money by taking people’s money on stock market deals o He makes his money by ripping people off He was very Ostentatious (He shows off) o He wears a huge cherry sized diamond in all of his ties Josie Mansfield o James Fiske’s girlfriend Erie War o Railroad line leading from Buffalo, NY to NYC, NY o Buffalo is a great steel making city at this time o Jim Fiske owns a Railroad from Buffalo to NY o The other one is owned by Commodore Vanderbilt Vanderbilt wants to buy up Jim Fiske’s railroad so he can create a monopoly Vanderbilt starts to buy stock from Jim Fiske’s company Jim Fiske creates more stock to rob Vanderbilt Vanderbilt didn’t notice until he spent 8 million dollars o Jim Fiske’s goes to New Jersey to hide from Commodore Vanderbilt He sets up at a New Jersey hotel and puts canons on the peer of the hotel o The government gets involved o Jim Fiske now goes to Albany, NY Albany is perhaps the most corrupt city capital of the history of man kind He bribes members of the state to about $500,000 They change the law that made Jim Fiske’s fake stocks actually legal o Come to an agreement where Fiske returns 4.7 million dollars to Commodore Vanderbilt Which means Fiske made 3.3 million o Dies by getting shot by his exgirlfriends boyfriend when trying to get back to her John D. Rockefeller (1839 – 1937) He was not very interesting Rockefeller original job was a bookkeeper He made his fortune through oil o He and a chemist friend made a better way to extract kerosene than his opponents He creates a Monopoly (Horizontal) o He buys up other companies John D. Rockefeller is actually making oil better and cheaper o This monopoly is working wonders He is America’s first billionaire! o He is making so much money that no one can fathom it He is one of America’s greatest philanthropist o He endows the University of Chicago (Which means he buys it) But he kept the name o He created a medical group to study cures Andrew Carnegie (1835 – 1919) Greatest philanthropist in American history Made his money from steel He was 5’4 and weighed 130 lbs and wore size 5 shoe He accumulates $380 million dollars during his lifetime o He gives away $350 million o He built Libraries 155 community libraries in Indiana alone Absolute cutthroat when it came to business 1/22/16 Discontent o Looking Backward is a book that hits the nail on the head about what people are upset about It tries to solve the problem of Political Corruption and Economic Inequality o A major problem of this time was an existence of Monopoly At this time they are called TRUSTS At this time we are seeing products that we need to use in day to day life in the hands of one organization There is no competition You can charge whatever you want if you are the sole company making/distributing that product John D Rockefellers company makes/distributes 90% of the country’s Oil and Kerosene Swift & Armor had combined with other meat companies and created a Beef TRUST o Owned about 90% of the market in meat o Nothing is more important that the railroad industry at this time Distribute and move everyone/everything William Vanderbilt Leader of the Vanderbilt’s at one point in time “The public be damned” o What he said about his company favoring big money over small businesses o LABOR A large influx of immigrants at this time coming to this country to work Series of strikes come up because of unfair workplaces 1877: Great Railroad Strike Begins in West Virginia They go on strike because they are asked to take a 10% pay cut The federal government dislikes this strike. They call in various National Guards o To fire upon the Strikers and put the strike down 1886: Haymarket Riot In Chicago Police and Strikers meet with force 1892: Homestead Strike Occurs in Andrew Carnegie’s most import steel mill This one is the epitome of how far out of hand the economy has gotten He hires a group of Pinkerton Guards o They were spies in the civil war o They became thugs for hire o They come in armed to Homestead and engage in a battle against the strikers o At one point it becomes a Naval battle Beginning of Unions Unions = Specific abilities o Railroad Engineer union o Railroad Conductor union If you could unite all of these job specific unions into company specific unions then they would be a lot stronger Knights of Labor (1868) o 1879: Terence C. Powderly He is Idealistic His idea is that we could all create a giant union and work together Arbitration If there is a problem, all they have to do is meet and work together. Everything will work out o It is a wonderful idea, but he is completely out of his element o They allowed everybody in the union except for Bankers, Lawyers, & Stock Brookers o 1886: 700,000 members Knights of Labor break apart 1886: American Federation of Labor (AFL) o REALISTIC We want shorter work days More money Can’t survive on these slave wages Safer conditions in the workplace o Samuel Gompers leader of the AFL from 1904 – 1924 He was Jewish and grew up in the slums of London At the age of 13 he moves from the slums of London to the slums of New York He is against immigrants He doesn’t like Asians Specifically Chinese 1904: 1.67 million members While he is the leader, we are going to see results But results for a limited few Idealism vs Realism o Ideal Knights of labor Literature Radicalism Liberal o Real AFL Literature Radicalism Wild Week 3 1/25/16 Discontent o Political corruption Giving the little guy no voice o Labor Unions began to develop Began to give the little guys a voice Radicals o Vs. Capitalism Anarchists Justice can only be achieved by any type of government They describe Christianity is a superstition used to create slaves MOST IMPORTANT o They are willing and able to use violence Nothing short of a domestic terror organization They are rather small Emma Goldman (1869 – 1940) was the most famous Anarchists o Born in Rochester, NY o She works in the clothing factory working a nice Jewish life o She gets married as a young girl and goes on a proper honeymoon She discovers that her new husband was impotent She comes back from the honeymoon and gets the divorce Divorce is seen as sacrilegious in the Jewish religion o She moves to NYC and becomes affiliated with a communes People just live in a little apartment house and share what they have She meets a man who will become her lifelong lover o Alexander Berkman They are lovers for life but they never get married o In 1892: Homestead Strike This strike is involving the entire community Trying to get fair wages Unites States is on the workers side this time Andrew Carnegie leaves Henry Clay Frick Becomes the new leader He is the one that orders the Pinkertons Anarchist decide that Henry Clay Frick is all that is wrong with Capitalism o So they want to kill him They first decide to blow him up with a device o Alexander Berkman and Emma Goldman can’t figure out how to get the bomb working o So they decide to shoot, but they can’t find the money She decides to be a prostitute to get money, she can’t do it She borrows money from her sister o Alexander Berkman shoots Henry Clay Frick twice and stabs him twice and he it doesn’t kill him Socialist Much more likeable group of people Eugene Debs (1855 – 1926) from Indiana It is on the Railroads o Eugene Debs starts working on the Railroads at age 14 o By 16 years old, he became a Railroad fireman Shovels coal into fire He began to see how rough life is for a railroad worker The companies wouldn’t keep up on maintenance or create sufficient things Brotherhood of Fireman o Just have fireman together, not the rest of the Railroad company o James Whitcomb Riley Great poet of Indiana o Debs and Riley travel together through Indiana 1893: American Railway Union o Eugene Debs helps create this 1894: Strike at the Pullman Car Works in Illinois o “Sympathy Strike” o Eugene Debs is against it because the Strike isn’t related to their union o They would not service a train with a Pullman car on it Most trains had Pullman cars on them 1894: Federal Judge o Orders the Railroad strikers back to work o Federal offense because the mail wasn’t getting delivered o Debs says no to the Judge Because if they go to work, then the Federal judge could order strikes over from here on out o Debs gets 6 months in prison for misbehavior o When he comes out of prison he believes that capitalism is wrong He becomes a full blown socialist Debs is against violence unlike the anarchists o He is also proDemocracy Wants to maintain Democracy 1897: Socialist Party in America o Debs creates that group to run for office o Debs runs for president 5 times, from 1900 – 1920 o In 1900 he gets 60,000 votes o In 1912 he gets 900,000 votes 6% pop. Vote th He is the 4 party running for president 1910: Milwaukee, WI becomes socialist o The major is Socialist and 21 of 35 in the city council are Socialist 1/27/16 Literature + Status Quo o Literature is all forms of entertainment Looking Backward Not a great novel, more of a document that is meant to educate and inspire About someone who sleeps until the year 2000 o He describes to the people of 2000 what life was like in 1887 UTOPIAN novel A novel that tries to present a perfect society Two Halves First half describes the world in 1887 nd 2 half describes the world in 2000 Author: Edward Bellamy (1850 – 1898) Born in a small town in Massachusetts Becomes the editor of the Springfield Massachusetts paper Gets married to his foster sister Begins to question the Status Quo In the book… o 1887: Insecurity Competition Inequality o 2000: Security Cooperation Equality Utopia Government o No private ownership o Communism This is what his future was like in described This book was the 3 biggest seller of Novels of alltime by 1890 Bellamy Clubs or “Nationalist” Clubs To see that the future follows what the book has to say 10,000 people nationwide join the clubs o Most of them are middle class Doctors, Lawyers They wanted to Nationalize certain industries o Argue that the Railroad, Power companies, and Oil be nationalized They are going to be vastly important because they are going to put a point on the idea o They are a loud group (nonviolently) Bellamy breaks the mold and there are all types of Utopia’s coming out o William Dean Howells A Traveler from Altruria A guy doesn’t come from the future, he comes from a different nation that is more cooperative and equal Utopian novel o Idealistic Utopias An idealistic approach to changing the system o Realistic Authors trying to prevent the problems of society in a realistic manner Stephen Crane (1871 – 1900) Most famous for realistic novels Maggie: A Girl of the Streets (1893) o She describes life in/of NYC o She tells a story of the family Johnsons They live in the tenement family The father is never at home and the mother is an alcoholic Maggie is a flower that emerges from the filth of the tenement She has to find a job She finds one making collars and cuffs for shirts She works 1214 hours a day Maggie takes a chance with a boy that her brother sets her up with She falls in love with him, her brother is a thief who steals from people His friend seduces and uses Maggie When her mother finds out that Maggie has been deflowered her mother kicks her out of the house She becomes a prostitute because she lost her job, and house Easiest way to make money The last thing she does is walk into the Hudson river and she kills herself 1/29/16 Farmers & Western Miners o They are suffering some economic problems at this time o During the 1880’s into the 90’s they are on the verge of losing everything they own o 18821893: Farm prices drop 43% They find it hard to pay for their mortgage Hits especially hard in Kansas 11k farms are foreclosed upon In some counties nearly 90% is turned over to the banks (Owned by them) o The Railroad Makes them pay a higher wage to get their foods to market Which runs them out of money more Some farmers aren’t making money anymore o Miners They are suffering because the price of silver drops near 50% Most western states are engaging in mining of Silver at this time o Both Miners and farmers have no money or recourse for action o They do what Eugene Debs does They create a political party, same thing Debs does (American Socialist Party) They are known as the Populists They are going to be a very radical group of people (not violent) They want to maintain the Capitalist system, just improve upon it for the common person They have a series of speakers speaking behalf of farmers Most famous Mary Elizabeth Leise Spectacular speaker o Went to Law school She travels around the country side trying to get Farmers to get behind this political movement o “Raise less corn, and more hell” o If they can control the food supply and unite against them then maybe they will listen o Mary Elizabeth Leise is like Bernie Sanders about Wall Street Congressman “Sockless” Jerry Simpson He was a Kansas rancher He is also going to be criticized for being a home spun character o He periodically misspells medicine He speaks for the masses o Against Wall Street and Banks o Great Plains The South Led by the populous leader Tom Watson From Georgia He is a vibrant speaker o Racist Regional aspect to this movement 1892: Populist creates their own political party Called The Peoples Party o A political party representing Farmers and Miners General. James Weaver o Presidential candidate of the Peoples Party o They gain support of the Bellamy “Nationalist” clubs People’s Platform o Call for unlimited coinage of Silver They request that the US Government make a ton of Silver coins Which means they will need a demand for Silver You create a system of Inflation They are trying to cause inflation o Graduated income tax The more money you have, the more you pay o Government ownership Of certain important places Most importantly the Railroads If the government owns the Railroads then it will be secure and fair They do okay in some places o He didn’t do so will in the south o Because the Democrats are from the south o They are going to have success in the Mid West and some of the south o They get 22 Electoral votes! Usually 3 parties do not get any votes 1893: Panic o The economic depression from the farmers and miners hit everyone else o The rest of the nation endures a smaller portion that the Miners and Farmers hit o Democrats adopt People’s party ideals o Lasts from 1893 – 1897 o 500 banks fail That means you go out of business, all of your money is lost There are no insurance on money in banks at the time o 16,000 businesses go bankrupt o Rumored 25% unemployment o People get antsy for change from this depression o Public becomes angry at Grover Cleveland Grover Cleveland (D) o Serving his second (nonconsecutive) term o Follows the Status Quo in his second term 1896: Election o 2 most important election of all time, behind Lincoln o 2/1/16 Democratic Party o They adopt ideas from the populist party o The Democratic candidate is William Jennings Bryan (1860 – 1925) Congressman from Nebraska who is going to take up the cause for Democrats Born in Salem, Illinois Father was a Judge Raised in an incredibly religious household Father was a Baptist and mother was a Methodist When William Jennings Bryan was 14 he converted to Presbyterian Moves to Nebraska and begins his career as a Congressman He is an incredible public speaker o 1896: Democratic Convention July: Chicago Incredibly hot in July William Bryan comes up after all of those boring people He walks to the front of the stage and starts speaking “I’m here to speak to you as what it means to be an American” He gives a famous speech o At the end “You shall not press down on the brow of labor, this crown of thorns” o The crowd goes ape shit “Cross of Gold” Speech is what it becomes to be known as This speech is enough to let William Bryan go forth and run as the Democratic Party The Populist party doesn’t run a campaign this year, they fully support William Bryan o William McKinley (1843 – 1901) Republican candidate Follows the Status Quo Spent a good portion of his life helping out his wife His wife was an epileptic They had an agreement that if she had a seizure in public that he should just ignore it and keep going People look at him as a nice guy but not brave politically He is actually a very good politician o Mark Hannnd 2 most important steel industrial owner behind Carnegie William McKinley has been looking out for him o 1896 Election Most import American election since the Abe Lincoln election William Jennings Bryan Democrat who supports the unlimited support of silver “the boy orator of the Platte” o He would go and give speeches everywhere in the United States Some people don’t like him o They accuse him of Communism and Anarchy William McKinley Republican candidate Front Porch Campaign o He is so confident that everything is going to rebound o He doesn’t go out and give speeches He stays home and gives speeches from his house o “McKinley + the Full Dinner Pail” Mark Hanna Owes McKinley a lot of money He is William McKinley’s campaign director The reason why McKinley can do the Front Porch campaign is because of Mark Hanna McKinley wins the presidential election (271 to 176, electoral vote) Bryan loses and the populist begin to die off o 1897: Panic ends Populist movement = dead William McKinley goes from being president from 1897 – 1901 o Wizard of Oz book written by Frank Baum A book about society in the early 1900’s William Jennings Bryan = Lion She wears silver slippers in the book 2/5/2016 American Imperialism o Becoming involved in foreign countries o 1 – Protect Investments A lot of American Industries are not based in America Like a pineapple, banana, and sugar farms New Markets This first Category is US Business interest o 2 – Block Foreign Expansion The United States are new to this. France, England, Germany, and even Japan has already been doing this. o Cuba $50 mil in sugar at Cuba alone Huge business in America Insurrection in Cuba against Spain We deserve the right because we live right beside that island (attitude of people then) U.S. Sympathizes with the Rebels in Cuba Yellow Journalism o Name came from the color of the newspapers o Joseph Pulitzer Famous Yellow Journalist o William Randolph Hearst Citizen Cane is about William Randolph Hearst Stories of what is going on in Cuba is selling a lot in the U.S. o Hearst and Pulitzer over exaggerated what the Spanish generals did to Cubans to sell more newspapers o February 1898 USS Maine is in Havana Harbor It blows up killing 260 US Sailors o Later on investigation shows that it was the boiler room that blew up (Maybe sabotaged) “Remember the Maine” Like “Remember the Alamo” or “Remember Pearl Harbor” o April 1898 We declare war on Spain The SpanishAmerican War “Splendid” little war 5 days after war is declared the U.S. achieves victory in this war The Spanish fleet is Stationed at Manilla Bay in the Philippines Spanish controls this region 5 Days after the war starts The American Asiatic Squadron flies into Manilla bay and destroys the whole Spanish Fleet there without losing anything o 1898 United States takes over Guam It is a good port for ships Spain owned it first, but U.S. took a battleship to take it over Puerto Rico Another Spanish possession just off of the United States Coast Stephen Crane is serving as a War Reporter o Military in the town surrenders to Stephen Crane because they don’t want to fight the United States Cuba Does have soldiers there because of the Insurrection We do some fighting in Cuba General William Shafter o Old Civil War general o Weighs 350 pounds The hero is Theodore Roosevelt o He is the hero of the War in Cuba o Theodore went to Harvard He was rich o He spent a lot of his time in the Dakotas o “Rough Riders” He created his own group San Juan Hill o Key fight in Theodore Roosevelt & American Cuban war history o CHARGE! Taking the fight to the enemy o “Colored Troops” Have already taken Kettle Hill They are shooting to San Juan Hill to protect them o August 1898 Spain Surrenders Unites States gain Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines Cuba is a U.S. Protectorate o The Philippines were not pleased with the Result They were fighting independence against Spain When the U.S. beat Spain instead of giving the Philippines their freedom, the U.S. took Spain’s place Emilio Aguinaldo Fighting independence on behalf of Spain o 1899 – 1902 The Philippines were fighting against the U.S. for their freedom Some soldiers end up collecting heads from Filipinos 20,000 Filipinos Killed 4,200 Americans Killed 2,800 Americans Wounded Spent $600 million 2/8/16 1900 o Presidential election o William McKinley (R) Very popular because of last terms success Economic flurry Spanish War o William Jennings Bryan (D) Has no chance of winning Run on an antiimperialist platform He can still give a great speech and make a great point He gets destroyed in the election o A very short second term o September 6 , 1901: Pan American Exposition in Buffalo, NY It is like a world’s fair A man steps out of a crowd and shoots 2 bullets into William McKinly Leon Czolgogz assassinates the president Vice president takes over Theodore Roosevelt takes over as President of the United states o Theodore Roosevelt (1858 – 1919) Theodore didn’t believe in the Status Quo He wants to rock the boat no matter what He wants to be the center of attention and not hide He is hyperactive At the age of 26 his young wife and mother dies the same day He falls into a serious state of depression “Strenuous life” o He starts to exercise and be busy while depressed o Live the life of a Cowboy in the Dakotas o Becomes friends with the Native Americans o Gets a nickname “Laughing Horse” o He goes and works for the Civil Service Commission Against the Spoils system o Later becomes the New York Chief of Police At night he would go out wearing a black coat and a mask looking for police not doing there job o He was aware of what he could and could not push First and foremost he is a politician o He realizes that you need people behind you to do anything One of the most intelligent Americans that we ever come across Creates the “Rough Riders” They won the battle of San Juan hill The greatest American hero at this time Became a boxer at Harvard To overcome his Asthma Not tied into big business like other Republicans 1901 – 1915: Progressive Era He begins to take on the problems from the Gilded Age (1877 – 1901) o Political Corruption & Economic Disparity First target is the Monopolies o Targets the “Sherman Antitrust Act” o Attempts to try to put a halt on the mergers 1902: He goes after the railroad from Chicago to the North West USA (Northern Securities Corporations) o There was competition between these 3 railroads companies and they decided to merge o J.P. Morgan is a robber baron in this time o The problem was the farmers in between these areas would have to pay whatever the NSC charged The problem was that it was too expensive because that was the only way for them to get it their o Teddy Roosevelt has a private meeting to J.P. Morgan “Send one of your men to one of my men and we will straighten it out” Teddy Roosevelt was pissed because J.P. Morgan considered themselves as equals when they weren’t o Roosevelt breaks these trusts (Monopolies) All of them Oil Steel Tobacco Railroads o All he Theodore Roosevelt wants to do is show that the government is in charge He becomes the most Popular president since George Washington or Abraham Lincoln Theodore Roosevelt isn’t really a Republican or Democrat… He is a Teddy Roosevelt Bureau of Corporations (1903) o Theodore creates it not as a law providing organization but just in information gathering corporation Fact finding organization that brings back info to Teddy o He publicizes information to let the public be more informed Teddy Roosevelt is a great speaker o His ability to sway public opinion is unmatched 2/10/16 Progressive Era o Teddy Roosevelt is President at this time o Journalists known as “Muckrakers” Trying to bring to the surface things that are wrong with American Society 1903 – 1908: This is when these Journalist are the most active They write mostly for magazines Like the Cosmopolitan (Different then than it is now) o Lincoln Steffens One of the most famous Journalist He writes about a lot of political corruption (Local, State, and National) o Ida Tarbell “Standard Oil” She uncovers all of the corruption in the oil business and the other monopolies that help them o Food/Drugs Food and Drugs didn’t require labeling at this time Patent Medicines Came in little brown bottles and you could buy them, but you never knew what was inside them Original CocaCola had cocaine in it Muckrakers revealed the ingredients to the Public Upton Sinclair o Writes a novel in 1906 called The Jungle o The purpose of this novel was to open the eyes of the American public to Socialism o People only remember his description of the Food factories Not the story to the book that he intended to pull the heart strings of the readers Harvey Wiley (1844 – 1930) from Indiana o Chief Chemist for the Department of Agriculture o He is from Kent, Indiana. Near Madison Indiana o Becomes the first professor of Chemistry at Purdue He doesn’t like Purdue o “Poison Squad” Their purpose is to follow throw what Teddy has begun To publicize the problem in Food and other places to get the laws passed o More ethos than the Journalists because of his background in Medicine and Chemicals 1906: o President Roosevelt was eating breakfast one day (sausage and eggs) and he was speed reading the Jungle, it is said that Teddy ran to the window and vomited o Pure Food + Drug Act Deals with Medicine (Patent Medicines must list what they have in the contents) Forbid the transportation of unlabeled food o Meat Inspection Act Deals with food Sends out government officials to make sure that meat packing factories are run within a neatly manor Controls how many outside objects you can have Tries to sanitize Americas food supply Still going to be corruption The thing is once you get these acts on paper you can more easily expand them later o Hepburn Act Involves the Railroads They can now fine the Railroads 1904 Presidential Election o Roosevelt runs for his first term (He was president before this because he came in from VP to P when the P died) 1904 – 1909 He is one of the most famous presidents of all time at the end of his first term o He decides he is not going to run for reelection 02/12/16 1908: Teddy chooses his successor o He chooses William Howard Taft (R) o He runs against William Jennings Bryan (D) Travels across the countries and gives great speeches He gets slaughtered o 1909 – 1913 The Taft years Incredibly difficult time Hard to follow a great president in the history of the United States William Taft is not like Teddy Roosevelt He is not a physical person He is overweight Happiest when munching almonds William H. Taft was a legalist He studied law and tried to use it in a very rigid manner Taft was never elected as something, this is the first election he won o Republican Party Tangentially related to Teddy Roosevelt Theodore was not a traditional Republican Now the party is divided into 2 groups Progressive Republicans o They want to continue what Teddy started o They are led by Robert LaFollette (Wisconsin) o Albert Beveridge (Indiana) o These two people are most important to try to continue Teddy’s legacy Conservative Republicans o They never expected that to happen o Teddy was an anomaly and a nightmare o Nelson Aldrich (Rhode Island) He is the fatherinlaw of John D. Rockefeller JR. Daughter hit the Jackpot This is the split that Taft inherits Things Taft has to deal with Tariff o Tax on imports o At this time it was very high o Dingley Tariff (1897) Tariff = 57% o Roosevelt was against this Tariff o Taft is presented with the new Tariff The PayneAldrich Tariff Lowers the Tariff to 41% Deals almost completely with Raw Materials o Taft doesn’t like this Tariff Better to get a slight improvement now and fix it later o In 1909 Taft signs this into Law Ballinger Affair o 1910 – 1911 o Involves Public Lands o US Forest Service Was set up to protect American wild lands Teddy Roosevelt passed this into law when he was in service He puts in charge Giffor
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