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Life 103- week 5

by: Alexis Darling

Life 103- week 5 LIFE 103

Alexis Darling
GPA 4.0

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Last weeks lectures
Biology of Organisms-Animals and Plants
Jennifer L Neuwald; Tanya Anne Dewey
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexis Darling on Friday February 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LIFE 103 at Colorado State University taught by Jennifer L Neuwald; Tanya Anne Dewey in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Biology of Organisms-Animals and Plants in Biology at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 02/19/16
Finishing up Angiosperms…    Vocab:  ­cotyledon­ initial ‘leaves’ for energy purposes; thicker than normal leaves, not specialized for  photosynthesis    ~Monocots  ○ more than 70,000 species  ● One cotyledon  ● parallel veins on leaves, flowers, etc  ● vascular tissue placed randomly through the stem  ● fibrous roots (no main root)  ● pollen grain has only 1 opening  ● petals and other floral organs in multiples of 3 (3,6,9, etc)  ❖ Includes: orchids, palms, grasses (grasses too have flowers, just tiny and slightly hidden)    ~Eudicots (“Eu”=true, “di”=two, “cots”=cotyledons) ­includes most dicots  ○ more than 170,000 species  ● Two cotyledons  ● branching veins through leaves, flowers, etc  ● organized vascular tissue; makes a ring if you look at a cross section of a stem  ● taproot/ main root  ● pollen grain has 3 openings  ● petals and other floral organs in multiples of 4 or 5  ❖ Includes: legumes, roses, most flowering trees    ~Basal Angiosperms  ○ 100 species  ❖ Amborella  ❖ Water Lillies  ❖ Star Anise    ~Magnoliids  ○ 8,000 species  ❖ Magnolias  ❖ Laurels    *Seed plants are crucial for humans by providing a great part of our food, fuel, wood, and  medicine.  Always remember the 5 key traits derived by seed plants:  ★ smaller gametophytes as reduced part of life cycle  ★ heterosporous­ have two types of spores, which develop into either male OR female;  ★ ovules (the female gametophyte)  ★ pollen (the male gametophyte)  ★ seeds­ formed after fertilization            Plant Structure  Summary­  Two main systems: Shoot system, made up of leaves and stem, and Root system, made up of  roots.  All leaves, stems, and roots are made up of dermal, vascular, and ground tissue.  All tissues are made up of parenchyma, collenchyma, and sclerenchyma cells.    ~​Roots​ :  Purposes­ hold plant firmly in ground     ­absorb water and minerals from underground     ­storage for carbohydrates/sugars  Parts­ taproot (mainly eudicots have this system)­ main root which extends deeply vertically; can  tap into deep water sources           ­lateral roots­ extend off of tap root like branches­ improve security in the ground, site of most water absorption           ­root hairs­ grow off of lateral roots, fine/thin for maximum surface area  Types of root systems­   ­Taproot­ allows plant to grow tall­ easier to pull up but stronger to support  altitude of the plant  ­ Fibrous­ adventitious roots form network directly off of stem once the radicle  dies  *holds plant in to survive grazing animals, but plant does not grow tall  Evolutionary adaptations­   ­prop roots­ splay out to support top heavy plants  ­storage roots­ hold a ton of carbohydrates  ­pneumatophores­ aerial roots that can absorb oxygen when above water at low tide    ~​Stems​ :  Purpose­ elongate shoot and grow it taller to achieve best photosynthesis  Parts­ nodes­ spots where leaves grow off of main stem           ­internodes­ stem segments between nodes           ­apical buds­ shoot tips at growing ends           ­axillary buds­ like axillary buds but located between the stem and where the leaf grows  out(node); grow if apical bud is taken off, results in bushy growth, not long like from apical buds           ­Rhizome­ modified stem that grows horizontally underground and starts new shoots  (asexual reproduction)           ­Stolon­ modified stem which grows horizontally above ground and each node forms a new  plant (asexual reproduction)           ­tubers­ stems underground which store carbohydrates and also grow new plants out of    ~Leaves: ​  Purpose­ intercept light    ­exchange gases    ­release heat    ­defend against herbivores and pathogens  Parts­ flattened blade           ­petiole­ stalk which connects leaf to main stem  Types­ simple leaf­ single blade attaches at one node with one axillary bud             ­complex leaf­ multiple blades (all connected by petiole) attach at one node with one  axillary bud             ­spines­ ex; on a cactus             ­reproductive leaves             ­storage leaves­ ex; onion layers             ­tendrils­ looks like a vine; grows to extend and hold onto other structures    All parts of plants (roots, stems, leaves) are made up of 3 types of tissues:  ~Dermal Tissue​ ­outer covering, like skin, defense mechanism  Parts­ epidermis­ outermost layer of cells           ­cuticle­ waxy coat over epidermis cells to prevent dessication      *roots hair is an extended epidermal cell    ~Vascular Tissue​ ­transport food and water and provide structural support  Parts­ Xylem­ for water and minerals; moves from roots to shoots (only up)  ● Tracheids (die at maturity)  ● Vessel elements (die at maturity)           ­ Phloem­ for sugars; moves from shoots (photosynthetic leaves) to roots (storage) or from  storage to where needed (goes both directions)  ● Sieve plates­ the cell walls between the cells that make up phloem have pores to  allow flowing of fluid; all together make up;  ● Sieve tube­ organelle­lacking cells yet stay alive with companion cells that  provide necessary proteins    ~​Ground Tissue​ ­ storage and support­ pretty much everything that’s not dermal or vascular  Parts­ pith­ inside vascular tissue           ­cortex­ outside of vascular tissue      All tissues made of different proportions of 3 types of cells:  ~Parenchyma cells​­  ● Thin walls, therefore flexible to allow further growth  ● Least specialized yet complete most metabolic functions  ● Can still differentiate and grow  ○ ex: cells containing chloroplasts, cells storing starch    ~Collenchyma cells​­  ● Thicker walls than parenchyma to support, yet still flexible to not inhibit growth  ● Grouped in strands    ~Sclerenchyma cells­​  ● Very thick secondary walls to provide rigid support (LIGNIN)  ● Only found in mature parts; no more growth  ● Once they have formed to proper function they die at maturity  *Often alongside xylem      Plant Growth   Plants typically haveindeterminate growth, meaning they continuously grow until death.  Certain plant parts follow determinate growth, meaning they grow until they reach a certain size  and then stop (leaves, flowers).  Meristems​ allow for indeterminate growth as they are always embryonic tissue.  2 types of meristems:  ● Apical meristems­ for ​primary growth​ (elongation), located on root and shoot tips  ● Lateral meristems­ for secondary growth​  (growth in diameter), 2 types;  ○ Vascular cambium  ○ Cork cambium    Primary growth of Roots:  (From root tip going back)  ❖ Root cap­ covers apical meristem to protect the dividing and growing cells as they push  through the rough soil  ❖ Zone of cell division­ meristem area; site of mitosis to create more cells  ❖ Zone of elongation­ area where cells lengthen by filling central vacuole with water  (allowing fast growth); this is what is responsible for the increase in root size, pushing it  further through the soil  ➢ Cellulose microfibrils wrap the cells like a slinky to direct elongation  ❖ Zone of differentiation­ here cells have differentiated to each have a specific function    Other parts and traits­  ● Endodermis­ inside layer of the cortex; permits only certain substances to pass into the  vascular cylinder (keeps toxins in soil out)  ● Pericycle­ outer layer of vascular cylinder; from where lateral roots begin    ● Eudicots have their xylem and phloem arranged like a + or star in their roots.  ● Monocots have them arranged in a ring in their roots.  (different in stems…)    Primary growth of Shoots:  ❖ Apical meristem  ❖ Leaf primordia­ embryonic tissues which develop into leaves; located around the sides of  the apical meristem  ❖ Axillary buds­ develop out of meristematic cells; at the bases of leaf primordia    ● Apical dominance­ the closer an axillary bud is to the apical meristem, the less it can  grow because hormones inhibit it; if the apical bud is removed or shaded then the axillary  bud can branch out    Tissue Organization of Stems:  Vascular tissue is arranged into bundles.  Most eudicots have their vascular bundles arranged into a ring pattern. Most monocots have their  vascular bundles scattered throughout their ground tissue. 


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