PSYC 1000 - Week 6 Notes
PSYC 1000 - Week 6 Notes Psyc 1000-04
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by HaleyG on Friday February 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 1000-04 at Tulane University taught by Bethany Rollins in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 02/19/16
PSYC Notes Week 6 February 1519 CHAPTER 3 Brain States and Consciousness (p. 9199) Consciousness: our awareness of ourselves and of our environment Cognitive neuroscience: interdisciplinary study of brain activity linked with cognition Dual processing: the principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks Blind sight: a condition in which a person can respond to a visual stimulus without consciously experiencing it Parallel processing: processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously (natural mode of information processing) Selective attention: focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus Inattentional blindness: failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere Change blindness Sleep and Dreams (p. 100116) Sleep: periodic natural loss of consciousness Circadian rhythm: the biological clock; regular body rhythms that occur on a 24 hour cycle Sleep cycle: NREM 1, NREM 2, NREM 3, NREM 2, and then REM Suprachiasmatic nucleus: cell clusters in the hypothalamus that sense light and control circadian rhythm REM sleep: rapid eye movement sleep; known as paradoxical sleep because muscles are relaxed but other body systems are active Hallucinations: false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus Sleep's functions Restoration of immune system and brain tissue Restoration of memories Supported growth of muscles Dream: a series of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person's mind Incorporation of previous days' nonsexual experiences and preoccupations Manifest content: the remembered storyline of a dream Latent content: the underlying meaning of a dream Dream theories Freud's wish fulfillment Informationprocessing Physiological function Cognitive development REM rebound: the tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation Drugs and Consciousness (p. 117131) Psychoactive drug: a chemical substance that alters perceptions and moods Addiction: compulsive craving of drugs or behaviors despite known adverse consequences Withdrawal: discomfort and distress that follows discontinuing an addictive drug Depressants: drugs that reduce neural activity and slow body functions Alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates Stimulants: drugs that excite neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety Caffeine, nicotine, cocaine, Ecstasy, and methamphetamines Hallucinogens: psychedelic drugs that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input LSD, THC Disordered drug use Biological influences Genetic predispositions Psychological influences Significant stress Depression and other psychological disorders Socialcultural influences Cultural acceptance of drug use Difficult environment, peer influences CHAPTER 7 Basic Learning Concepts and Classical Conditioning (p. 280289) Learning: the process of acquiring through experience new information or behaviors Associative learning: learning that certain events occur together Classical conditioning: one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events Neural stimulus (NS): a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning Unconditioned response (UR): an unlearned response to an unconditioned stimulus Unconditioned stimulus (US): a stimulus that naturally and automatically triggers an unconditioned response Conditioned response (CR): a learned response to a previously neutral stimulus Conditioned stimulus (CS): an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response Acquisition: initial stage of classical conditioning Extinction: diminishing of a conditioned response Respondent behavior: behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus Operant behavior: behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences Operant Conditioning (p. 290299) Operant conditioning: a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher Law of effect: rewarded behavior is likely to recur and punished behavior is less likely to recur Reinforcement: any behavior that increases the frequency of a preceding response Shaping: gently guiding behavior closer to the desired behavior Positive reinforcement: increasing behaviors by presenting positive reinforcers Negative reinforcement: increasing behaviors by reducing negative stimuli Major drawbacks of physical punishment Punished behavior is suppressed, not forgotten Punishment can teach fear Punishment teaches discrimination among situations Physical punishment may increase aggression Biology, Cognition, and Learning (p. 300315) Limits on classical conditioning Some associations are learned more quickly than others Limits on operant conditioning We most easily learn and retain behaviors that reflect biological predispositions Latent learning: learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it Intrinsic motivation: a desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake Extrinsic motivation: a desire to perform a behavior to receive rewards or avoid punishment Observational learning: learning by observing others Mirror neurons: frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or observing another doing so; may enable imitation and empathy Prosocial behavior: positive, constructive, helpful behavior CHAPTER 8 Memory Retrieval (p. 3345) Retrieval cues: sensory information associated with a memory Priming: the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory Encoding specificity principle: cues and contexts specific to a particular memory will be most effective in helping us recall it Lecture Notes CHAPTER 3 Opiates: provide euphoria, pain relief, and relaxation (induce sleep) Morphine, heroin, codeine Endorphin agonists Highly addictive but commonly prescribed If used as prescribed, probably won't get addicted Stimulants: increase activity in CNS Increase wakefulness, energy, and confidence, decrease appetite Caffeine, amphetamines, MDMA Nicotine One of the most addictive drugs Cocaine Increase activity of norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin Euphoric rush, confidence, optimism, well being Heart attack, stroke High addiction potential Shorter but more widespread effect versus amphetamines Amphetamines Methamphetamines, Dexedrine, Benzedrine Increase activity of norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin Not as much euphoria as cocaine Alertness, appetite suppression, hyperactivity High addiction potential MDMA DA (dopamine) and 5HT (serotonin) Euphoria, feelings of closeness with others, hyperactivity Causes damage to serotonin neurons (leads to depression, anxiety) Psychedelic Hallucinogens LSD, psilocybin, mescaline/peyote cactus Serotonin agonists Produce hallucinations, mystical experiences, alter thinking and emotion Low addiction potential Possible therapeutic uses Depression, drug addiction, PTSD Unpredictable Psychosis Marijuana Active ingredient: THC Cannabinoid agonist Perceptual alterations, relaxation, disinhibition, euphoria Memory, concentration, attention, coordination Low toxicity Therapeutic uses Pain, nausea, loss of appetite CHAPTER 7 Learning: a relatively permanent change in behavior or knowledge due to experience Early definitions left knowledge out of the definition of learning Learning is strongly associated with behavioral psychology Behavioral psychology was dominant, belief that observable behaviors should be the only measure of psychology Learning by noticing patterns and making associations between events Helps us predict and prepare for relevant events Allows adaptation to new situations Organisms for a greater propensity for learning are more likely to adapt to surroundings and less controlled by biology and instinct Associative learning Classical conditioning: type of learning in which a neutral stimulus acquires ability to produce a response through association with a stimulus that produces a similar response Organism learns to associate two stimuli Ivan Pavlov: Russian physiologist Discovered classical conditioning Dogs learned to associate bells with food Components of classical conditioning Unconditioned stimulus (UCS): stimulus that naturally produces a response without any association [the meat in Pavlov's study] Unconditioned response (UCR): unlearned, automatic response to the UCS [salivation to the meat in Pavlov's study] Conditioned stimulus (CS): stimulus that acquires the ability to produce a response by being associated with the UCS [the bell in Pavlov's study] Conditioned response (CR): learned response to the CS [salivation to the bell in Pavlov's study] UCR and CR are usually very similar Watson and Rayner Little Albert: taught to associate a white rat with a scared reaction Processes involved in classical conditioning Acquisition: process of pairing CS and UCS until CR is established Acquisition will occur most rapidly when the CS is presented right before the UCS (CS predicts UCS) Biopreparedness: we learn some associations more quickly than others (biological predisposition to make particular associations) Humans are predisposed to learn associations involving things that have been an evolutionary threat Conditioned taste aversion (CTA): tendency to associate foods with stomach problems or nausea Strongest aversion to unfamiliar foods Unique aspects of CTA Pairing (onetrial learning in order to develop association) Timing: CS can occur hours before UCS and we still learn the association Stimulus generalization: tendency to produce CR to stimuli similar to CS Helps predict new situations Stimulus discrimination: learning not to produce CR to stimuli that don't signal CS Stopping of stimulus generalization Extinction: getting rid of CR by repeatedly presenting CS without UCS Reverse of classical conditioning Operant conditioning: organism learns to associate its own behavior with a consequence of that behavior Organism learns to engage in behaviors that result in enjoyment and to not engage in behaviors that result in punishment Contrast with classical conditioning CC associates two stimuli OC associates behavior with stimulus (consequence) CC does not depend on behavior of organism, OC does CC reactions are involuntary and automatic, while behavior in OC is voluntary B.F. Skinner Skinner box/operant chamber: box for small animal with buttons and reward or punishment consequence; helps with the study of operant conditioning Processes involved in operant conditioning Shaping: reinforcement of successive approximations toward the desired behavior Biological predispositions: some behaviors are easier to condition than others More difficult to train animals to go against instincts Stimulus discrimination: learning that a behavior will lead to a particular consequence in presence of some stimuli but not others (ex. telling jokes makes friends laugh only when friends are drunk) Discriminative stimuli: signal that behavior will lead to a particular consequence (in the example above, the discriminative stimuli is drunkenness) Stimulus generalization: engaging in behavior in presence of stimuli similar to discriminative stimulus that signaled reinforcement Reinforcement: makes the behavior it follows more likely to occur again in the future Defined by effect on behavior because the effect on one individual may not be the same as the effect on another Positive reinforcement: addition of a desirable stimulus as the result of a behavior (ex. Reward of food) Negative reinforcement: removal of a negative stimulus as the result of a behavior; often involves escape or avoidance (ex. Turning off an alarm) Schedules of reinforcement Continuous reinforcement: a behavior is reinforced every time it occurs Partial reinforcement: a behavior that is reinforced only some of the time it occurs Teaches persistence Extinction: eliminating a behavior by removing reinforcement Partialreinforcement extinction effect: partial reinforcement is more difficult to extinguish (organism is used to reinforcement only some of the time) Punishment: makes the behavior it follows less likely to occur again in the future Defined by effect on behavior, not the intention Positive punishment: addition of something unpleasant Negative punishment: removal of something pleasant Problems with punishment Fear and anxiety Modeling poor behavior Punisher is temporary/conditional Delay of consequences Consequences have a larger impact on behavior when they occur immediately after a behavior, so that the sequence of behavior > consequence is more obvious Humans are better able to respond to delayed consequences than are animals, but delayed consequences will have less effect on behavior (ex. drugs give immediate gratification but negative effects occur later) Gained Removed Good Positive reinforcement :) Negative punishment :( Bad Positive punishment :( Negative reinforcement :) Observational learning: natural propensity of imitation Humans and primates are observational learners starting soon after birth Modeling, social learning Watching and imitating Bandura and Bobo doll experiments Experimental group watched adults beat up the Bobo doll, control group did not; experimental group copied actions of beating up the doll, control group did not spend much time with Bobo doll Media violence: simplistic violence, large exposure to public Correlational and experimental evidence shows media violence increases aggressive behavior in viewers Affects behavior and attitudes Desensitizes and primes us to be more aggressive when provoked Impact on aggressiveness depends on other factors Individual's personality Individual's home life Individual's peer group CHAPTER 8 Memory: the retention of information over time Savant: someone who has an incredible ability that no one can learn if they tried Kim Peek: memory savant, born without corpus collosum 3 Basic memory processes: 1. Encoding: getting information into memory 2. Storage: holding information in memory 3. Retrieval: finding information in memory Encoding Automatic processing: remembered without effort Space, time, sequence, frequency Effortful processing Maintenance rehearsal: repeating what you're trying to remember over and over without thinking about the meaning Serial position effects: how well you remember an item on a list depends on its serial position on the list (beginning, middle, end) Primacy effect: more likely to remember items at the beginning of a list (lasts over time) Recency effect: more likely to remember items at the end of a list (fades over time) Elaborative rehearsal: thinking about the meaning (semantics) of the information you are trying to remember Deeper processing than maintenance rehearsal, which leads to more successful retrieval over time Linking information that you are tying to encode with information you already know enhances depth of processing Selfreference effect tendency to best remember information that we can apply to ourselves (deepest processing) Spacing effect: tendency to better remember information when encoding is distributed over time Storage Information processing model of memory: information must pass through three stages of mental processing before that information is firmly embedded in memory 1. Sensory memory: holds information from senses just long enough for us to identify it 2. Shortterm memory (STM): holds pieces information that we are currently using for a short amount of time Working memory: function of STM that serves as mental chalkboard, allows us to do mental work Mental work: holding information in memory while you manipulate it (ex. doing math in your head) Used to solve problems, make decisions, and think ahead Storage capacity Immediate memory span: maximum number of items that can be recalled perfectly after one presentation (7 +/2 is the "magic number") Information learned only lasts 1830 seconds if it is not rehearsed 3. Longterm memory (LTM)