Endocrine System 18.1 for BMS 507
Endocrine System 18.1 for BMS 507 BMS 508
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katherine Loiselle on Friday February 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BMS 508 at University of New Hampshire taught by Mary Katherine Lockwood, PhD in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology II in Biological Sciences at University of New Hampshire.
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Date Created: 02/19/16
An Introduction to the Endocrine System Hormones — Regulate activities such as sleep, body temperature, hunger, and stress management — Products of the endocrine system Endocrine System — Along with the nervous system, controls and coordinates our body processes Homeostasis is preserved through intercellular communication Endocrine system uses chemical messengers to relay information and instructions between cells — Direct Communication Occurs between two cells of the same type Cells must be in extensive physical contact Communicate so closely that they function as a single entity Adjacent cells coordinate cellular activities by exchanging ions and molecules Gap Junctions Coordinate ciliary movement among epithelial cells Coordinate the contractions of cardiac muscle cells Facilitate the propagation of action potentials from one neuron to the next at electrical synapses — Paracrine Communication Use of chemical messengers to transfer information from cell to cell within a single tissue Chemicals involved are paracrine factors (local hormones) Prostaglandins Various growth factors Hormones Chemical messengers that are released in one tissue and transported in the blood stream to alter the activities of specific cells in other tissues Paracrine factors that produce secondary effects when they enter the blood stream Only produced by specialized cells Substance with effects outside of the tissue of origin only if the chemical structure is known o Factor is structure remains to be determined Target Cells Each hormone has target cells Specific cells that have the receptors needed to bind and read the hormonal message when it arrives Cells are exposed even if they lack the target cells — Endocrine Communication Activity of hormones in coordinating cellular activities in tissues in distant portions of the body Hormones alter the operations of target cells by changing the types, quantities, or activities of important enzymes and structural proteins Stimulate the synthesis of an enzyme or a structural protein not already present in the cytoplasm by activating appropriate genes in the cell nucleus Increase or decrease the rate of synthesis of a particular enzyme or other protein by changing the rate of transcription or translation Turn an existing enzyme or membrane channel on or off by changing its shape of structure Hormones can alter metabolic activities of multiple tissues and organs at the same time Effects are slow to appear Last for days Effective in coordinating cell, tissue, and organ activity on a sustained, long term basis Example o Circulating hormones keep body water content and levels of electrolytes and organic nutrients within normal limits 24 hours a day throughout our lives Cells can respond to several different hormones simultaneously Gradual changes in quantities and identities of circulating hormones can produce complex changes in the body’s physical structure and physiological capabilities Example o Embryonic and fetal development o Growth o Puberty — Synaptic Communication Neurons release a neurotransmitter at a synapse very close to target cells that have appropriate receptors Command travels rapidly by action potentials propagated along axons Short-lived Restricted to specific target cells — Similarities Between Endocrine System and Nervous System Both systems rely on release of chemicals that bind to specific receptors on their target cells Share many chemical messengers Norepinephrine Epinephrine Hormones when released into the bloodstream Neurotransmitters when released across synapses Regulated by negative feedback control mechanisms Preserve homeostasis by coordinating and regulating the activities of other cells, tissues, organs, and systems Mechanism Transmission Chemical Distribution of Mediators Effects Direct Through gap Ions, small solutes,Usually limited to Communication junctions lipid-soluble adjacent cells of materials the same type that are interconnected by connexons Paracrine Through Paracrine factors Primarily limited to Communication extracellular fluid a local area, where paracrine factor concentrations are relatively high Target cells must have appropriate receptors Endocrine Through the Hormones Target cells are Communication bloodstream primarily in other tissues and organs and must have appropriate receptors Synaptic Across synapses Neurotransmitters Limited to very Communication specific area; target cells must have appropriate receptors
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