Intro to Info Technology Management: Chapter 3
Intro to Info Technology Management: Chapter 3 Bus Adm 230
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This page Class Notes was uploaded by Bailee Gustafson on Friday February 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bus Adm 230 at University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee taught by George S. Nezlek, PhD in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Intro to Info Technology Management in Business at University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee.
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Date Created: 02/19/16
Chapter 3 Hardware Input Processing Output amp Storage Devices 0 Primary Storage Main Storage 0 Part of the computer that holds program instructions and data 0 Provides CPU with a working storage area for programs and data ArithmeticLogic Unit ALU 0 CPU component that performs mathematical calculations and makes logical comparisons 0 Control Unit 0 CPU component that sequentially accesses program instructions decodes them coordinates ow of data in amp out of ALU registers primary storage as well as secondary storage amp various output devices Registers 0 High speed storage areas used to temporarily hold small units of a program instructions and data Motherboard 0 The backbone of the computer connects all of its components 0 Bus 0 A set of physical connections cables printed circuits etc that can be shared by multiple hardware components so they can communicate with one another Instruction Phase step one is to fetch the instruction step two is to decode the instruction Execution Phase step three is to execute the instruction step four is to store the results Instruction Time lTime Execution Time ETime Most CPUS 0 are collections of digital circuits imprinted on silicon wafers or chips each no bigger than the tip of an eraser Moore39s Law 0 Hypothesis stating that transistor densities on a single chip will double every two years Storage Capacity Byte B 0 Eight bits that together represent a single character of data RAM Random Access Memory 0 Temporary and volatile I Static Random Access Memory SRAM used for high speed registers and caches I Dynamic Random Access Memory DRAM used for main memory Cache Memory 0 Type of high speed memory that a processor can access more rapidly than main memory Read Only Memory ROM 0 Nonvolatile and provides permanent storage for data ad instructions that do not change 2 Types Erasable Programmable ROM EPROM and Electronically Erasable Programmable ROM EEPROM Multiprocessing o Simultaneous execution of two or more instructions at the same time Coprocessor 0 Does speci cs along with the multiprocessor Multicore Microprocessor o 2 or more processors in one package Parallel Computing 0 Simultaneous execution of the same task on multiple processors to obtain results faster 0 Multiple machines working on one problem Massively Parallel Processing 0 Hundreds or thousands of processors linked to operate at the same time all working on one problem Grid Computing 0 Collection of computers working in a coordinated manner to solve a common problem Secondary Storage 0 Slower than primary 0 Devices that store large amounts of data instructions and information more permanently than allowed with memory 0 Nonvolatile more space cheaper Sequential Access 0 Data must be retrieved in the order in which it is stored o Devices used are called sequential access storage devices or more commonly SASD Direct Access 0 Records can be retrieved in any order 0 Devices used are called direct access storage devices orDASD Magnetic Tapes 0 Type of sequential secondary storage medium that is primarily for storing backups of critical organizational data Hard Disk Drive HDD 0 Direct access storage device that consists of rapidly rotating disks coated with magnetic material Redundant Array of IndependentInexpensive Disks RAID 0 Method of storing data that generates extra bits of data from existing data 0 A bunch of disks working together as one Disk Mirroring 0 Process of storing data that provides an exact copy that protects users fully in event of data loss Virtual Tape 0 Storage device for less frequently needed data Solid State Secondary Storage Devices SSDs 0 Storage data is in memory chips rather than magnetic or optical media 0 EX USB Infrastructure as a Service laaS 0 Computing model in which an organization outsources the equipment used to support its business operations including storage hardware servers and networking components Attached Storage 0 Includes devices connected directly to a single computer tape RAID devices virtual tape optical SSDs 0 Simple and cost effective for single users or small groups but doesn t allow systems to share storage and backup is dif cult Network Attached StorageNAS 0 HDD storage device that s set up with its own network address and provides le based storage services to other devices on the network 0 Consolidate storage internet and e commerce applications digital media Storage Area NetworkSAN o High speed special purpose network that integrates different type of data into a single storage system and connects that to a computing resources across an entire organization 0 Deals with block inputoutput Input amp Output Devices 0 Input allows accurate and rapid entry of general types of data 0 Output produces timely results Data Entry 0 Converting human readable data into a machine readable form Data Input 0 Transferring machine readable data into the system Source Data Automation 0 Capturing and editing data where it is initially created and in a form that can be directly entered into a computer 0 Ensures accuracy and timeliness Handheld Computer 0 Compact computing device laptop tablet etc Scalability 0 Ability to increase the processing capability o Enables a system to handle more users more data and more transactions Virtual Server 0 Method of logically dividing resources of a single physical server to create multiple logical servers Blade Server 0 Server that houses many individual computer motherboards Mainframe Computer 0 Large powerful computer shared by hundreds of concurrent users connected to the machine over a network Super Computer 0 One of the most powerful computer systems with the fastest processing speed Data Center 0 Climateandaccesscontrolled building or set of buildings that houses the computer hardware that delivers on organizations data and information services Green Computing 0 Program concerned with ef cient and environmentally responsible design manufacture operation and disposal of lSrelated products 0 Electronic Product Environmental Assessment Tool EPEAT 0 System that enables purchasers to evaluate compare and select electronic products based on 51 environmental criteria Need to know information
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