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Dr. Streit Week 5 Notes

by: Rachel Ferrell

Dr. Streit Week 5 Notes CHEM 1030 - 003

Marketplace > Auburn University > Chemistry > CHEM 1030 - 003 > Dr Streit Week 5 Notes
Rachel Ferrell
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ch 4-5
Fundamentals Chemistry I
John D Gorden
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Ferrell on Friday February 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 1030 - 003 at Auburn University taught by John D Gorden in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals Chemistry I in Chemistry at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 02/19/16
Rachel  Ferrell   CHEM  1030   2/15/16     Chapter  4  cont.:     Ionization  Energy:   • =minimum  energy  required  to  remove  an  electron  from  an  atom  in  the  gas  phase   • result  is  an  ion=  a  chemical  species  with  a  net  charge     o cation=  positive  charge   o anion=  negative  charge   • Na(g)→Na (g)  +  e  ­‐ o Ionization  energy  of  Na=  495.8  KJ/mol   o 1  IE  of  Na→corresponds  to  the  removal  of  the  most  loosely  held  electron  in  a  valence  shell   • in  general→  As  Zeff  increases,  IE  also  increases   o therefore,  ionization  energy  increases  from  left  to  right  across  a  period   o Exceptions   § IE  decreases  from  Group  2A-­‐3A   • Because  within  a  given  shell,  higher  l  value  are  higher  in  energy,  thus  easier   to  remove   • Group  2A=  2s   • Group  3A=  2p →easier  to  remove;  lower  IE   § IE  decreases  from  Group  5A-­‐6A   • Because  removing  a  paired  electron  is  easier  because  of  repulsive  forces   between  two  electrons  in  the  same  orbital   • Group  5A=  np   4 • Group  6A=  np →easier  to  remove;  less  stable;  lower  IE   • Can  also  remove  additional  electrons  →IE  2, , 3  etc.   o Takes  more  energy  to  remove  core  electron  than  a  valence  electron   § Because  they  are  closer  to  nucleus   Electron  Affinity:   • Energy  released  when  an  atom  in  a  gas  phase  accepts  an  electron   o Cl(g)+  e →  Cl (g)   o Result  is  always  a  anion   • EA  increases  from  left→right  across  a  period  as  Zeff  increases   o Because  its  easier  to  add  an  electron  as  the  (+)  charge  of  the  nucleus  increases   • Exceptions:   o EA  decreases  from  Group  1A  to  Group  2A   § Because  its  easier  to  add  an  electron  to  an  s  orbital  than  to  add  to  a  p  orbital  with   the  same  n   o EA  decreases  from  Group  4A  to  Group  5A   § Because  with  a  p  shell,  its  easier  to  add  an  electron  to  an  empty  orbital  than  to  add   one  to  an  orbital  already  with  an  electron   • More  than  one  electron  may  be  added  to  an  atom   o EA  2oes  down→always  negative   o Because  more  energy  is  required  to  overcome  repulsive  force  between  an  electron  and  a  (-­‐)   charged  atom   Metallic  Character:   • Metals  tend  to   o Be  shiny,  malleable   o good  conductors  of  electricity   o have  low  IE→commonly  form  cations  (hard  to  accept  electrons,  easy  to  lose  electrons)   • Nonmetals   o Vary  in  color,  not  shiny   o Brittle   o High  EA→commonly  form  anions  (easy  to  accept  electrons,  hard  to  lose  electrons)   • Metalloids   o Properties  intermediate  between  metals  and  nonmetals   • Periodic  trends→explained  by  Columbs  law   ????????  ????  ???????? o F????   ????^????   o Q1/2=  charged  objects   o D=distance     o Explains  repulsion  and  attraction  forces   o Explains  atomic  radius,  ionization  energy,  and  electron  affinity   Ions  of  Main  Group  Elements:   • Isoelectrons=  species  with  the  same  electron  configuration  to  the  noble  gases  to  the  right   o due  to  adding  or  removing  electrons   o exception:  Mercury=polyatomic  ion     Electron  Configuration  of  Ions:   • cation→remove  1  electron   • anion→add  1  electron   • Steps:   o 1)  Write  the  electron  config  for  the  atom   o 2)  Add  of  remove  the  appropriate  number  of  electrons   Ions  of  D-­‐Block  Elements:   • ions  formed  by  removing  electron  first  from  the  shell  with  the  highest  value  of  n   o ex.  Fe→Fe  2+ § Fe:  [Ar]  4s 3d   2+ 6 § Fe :  [Ar]  3d   § Fe :  [Ar]  3d   § Therefore,  remove  from  4s  before  3d  because  it  has  a  higher  n  value   Ionic  Radius:   • =radius  of  a  cation/anion   • when  an  atom  loses  an  electron  to  become  a  cation,  radius  decreases    because   o 1)  reduction  in  electron-­‐electron  replulsions  (shielding)  in  the  valence  shell   o 2)  significant  decrease  in  radius  occurs  when  all  of  atoms  valence  electrons  are  removed   o cation  radius<atomic  radius   • when  an  atom  gains  an  electron,  radius  increases  due  to  increased  electron-­‐electron   repulsions(electrons  trying  to  spread  out)   o anion  radius>atomic  radius   Isoelectronic  Series:   • a  series  of  2  or  more  species  that  have  identical  electron  configurations  but  different  nuclear   charges     Chapter  5:     Compounds:   • =substance  composed  of  2  or  more  elements  combined  in  a  specific  ratio  and  held  together  by   chemical  bonds   o ex.  Water  and  salt  (NaCl)   Lewis  Dot  Structures:   • atoms  combine→more  stable  electron  configuration   • maximum  stability→isoelectronic  with  Noble  Gases   • when  compounds  form  it  is  the  valence  electrons  that  interact  with  each  other   • Lewis  Dot  Symbols=  element  symbols  with  dots   o each  dot=valence  electron   • for  main  group  metals  such  as  Na→dots  are  the  number  of  electrons  lost  in  Na   • for  nonmetals→unpaired  dots=  number  of  bonds  an  atom  can  form   • Ion  dot  structures   o Written  in  the  same  way  except  with  brackets  and  charges   2-­‐ o Ex.  [O]  


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