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2/19/16 Notes

by: Patricia Quizon

2/19/16 Notes HIST 1020-008

Patricia Quizon

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About this Document

These notes cover Imperialism in Africa and the causes of World War I
World History II
Dr. Bohanan
Class Notes
World History, world history ii, origins of world war i, african imperialism
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Patricia Quizon on Friday February 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1020-008 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Bohanan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 02/19/16
Friday, 2/19/16 Notes Africa under the European rule of the Belgian Congo King Leopold II, using it as his own personal territory, acquired the Congo. He had sent Henry Stanley, a journalist who found Livingstone, to negotiate treaties with the local chieftains to seize the Congo as a colony. His ownership and use of the Congo is known as the regime of terror. Leopold uses this territory to exploit it economically, extracting rubber and ivory and selling them at high prices. He enslaves the Congolese population with the use of an army called the Force Publique (FP) to enforce labor. The FP was made of a subset of the Congolese who were recruited specifically for their reputation of being malicious and brutal. To ensure he had laborers, he played upon the tribal rivalries present and the different ethnicities. Any resistance was met with maiming, rape, and holding family hostage. It was common for people’s hands to be chopped off by the FP to give family members incentive to work. An estimated 10 million people were killed in this ordeal. Opposition to the regime started to spread in Europe after Edmund Morel brought the issue to light. In Liverpool, where he worked as a secretary and part-time journalist, he noticed ships coming in to dock loaded with rubber and leaving with guns and ammo. He investigates this and is the first to call attention to the Congo. Another figure that called attention was Joseph Conrad, the author of Heart of Darkness. Parliament and other European powers force Leopold to improve things somewhat in the Congo. Causes of World War I --Nationalism Nationalism was a widespread emotion and one of the major causes of WWI. At this time, there was still a large presence of multi-national empires—large states that include diverse populations and minority groups (Russia, the Ottoman Empire). One multi-national empire in particular was the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Ethnic minorities were trapped under this government. In this region existed the Balkans, a geographical region made of many groups, mostly Slavic. Nationalism is so explosive because of Serbia and Bosnia-Herzegovina (referring as B-H). Serbia is a new nation-state in 1878, populated by the Serbs. Next to them to the West is B-H, with a high population of Serbs—they, however, fall under Austrian government. Naturally, B-H want to be part of Serbia because of its Serbian population, and Serbia shares this feeling. --Diplomacy A unified German state is threatening European powers, being industrially and militarily powerful. Bismarck decides to make Germany look like a peacemaker, creating the Bismarckian system: Germany would create an alliance with Austria, Russia, and Italy. This system’s main principle was to isolate France, attempting to weaken it. The British are suspicious of Germany’s intentions. Bismarck believes that in the event of war, Great Britain and France would be at war with each other, neutralizing the two forces. In 1890, Bismarck falls from power, compromising his system. His successors don’t have the same vision as he, and ultimately fail to renew the alliance with Russia. France sees its chance to make Russia an ally and hauls ass. In response to this, Germany approaches Britain with an alliance but Britain is still very suspicious. This forces them in to the arms of the French. Now, there are two established groups of powers: the Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente. The Triple Alliance was made of Germany, Italy and Austria; the Triple Entente consisted of France, Great Britain, and Russia. These two equal systems tie up the major powers; if one goes to war, the rest will follow suit. --Arms race Everyone is heavily armed, which meant when mobilization happens, war is a done deal. --Balkans turmoil In B-H, the community is very sick of Austrian rule and wish to be part of Serbia. In order to calm down Serbian nationalism, The Hapsburgs send down Archduke Franz Ferdinand to Sarajevo, the capital of B-H. On June 28, 1914, a Serbian nationalist assassinates Franz Ferdinand, who was the heir to the throne of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Austria responds with an ultimatum to Serbia demanding an apology and to allow an investigation in Serbia. Serbia refuses investigation and Austria prepares for war.


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