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Week 2/15-2/19 Notes

by: Nicolas Jarrell

Week 2/15-2/19 Notes 1500

Marketplace > Ohio State University > PHIL-Philosophy > 1500 > Week 2 15 2 19 Notes
Nicolas Jarrell
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About this Document

These are the notes that I took for the week.
Introduction to Logic
Keren Wilson
Class Notes




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nicolas Jarrell on Friday February 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1500 at Ohio State University taught by Keren Wilson in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Logic in PHIL-Philosophy at Ohio State University.


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Date Created: 02/19/16
Philosophy 1500- 2/2-2/16 Notes Validity- if the premises are true, then the conclusion must be true -an argument form= replace terms with variables -Either it’s raining or it’s sunny -It’s not raining This becomes -Either P or Q -Not P -Therefore Q Soundness- argument is valid and the premises are true Intension: the meaning, sets the properties that anything falling under this term would have, what a term connotes is its intension Extension- the group of things that the term really applies to Extensional -ostensive/demonstrative- pointing -enumerative- listing all the individuals -subclasses- listing the kinds/ groups Intensional -synonymous -etymological- giving the history of the word to show what it means -operational- give a procedure to taste whether something deserves the name A lexical definition should conform to standards of proper grammar -should avoid figurative/ obscure definitions Mistakes in Arguments: -False Premises True Premises -Formal fallacies -invalid argument or deductive argument -Informal Fallacies -you have to look at the content Fallacies of Revelance -something that is irrelevant to the conclusion is presented as if it is relevant Appeal to force: make a threat that has no evidence Appeal to pity: makes someone pity them rather than providing evidence -not always a fallacy Ad hominem: draws attention to the opponent itself, rather than to the argument made Tu quoque: rather than talking about evidence, say that someone is hypocritical or inconsistent with their behavior Straw Man: an argument that is not your opponents argument and is easier to defeat than your opponents argument Missing the Point: you present premises which support some conclusions are not strong enough to warrant the conclusion Fallacies of Weak Induction False cause: Claiming that things that occur around the same time of an incident are the cause of that incident Appeal to Ignorance: you point out that nothing has been proved, and then make a positive claim on the basis of this Hasty Generalization: when you generalize badly -sample size is too small/ not representative/ badly chosen False Cause: - Post Hoc - Confusing correlation w/ causation - Confuse cause with effect - Oversimplified causes- we should have stricter policies for teachers - Gambler’s fallacy- I have to win sometime - Slippery slope - Equivocation Fallacies of Presumption -The argument is weak because something is presumed Begging the Question: leave out a shaky premise ( one you don’t want to bring attention to) Complex Question: where more than one question is being asked, but unless that is figured out, you are being suckered into answering something you don’t want to False Dichotomy: when you falsely divide into 2 groups (Example: either you’re American or you’re Muslim) Fallacies of Ambiguity: Fallacy that arises because terms are used unclearly


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