Dr. Green Week 5 Notes
Dr. Green Week 5 Notes NTRI 2000-002
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Ferrell on Friday February 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NTRI 2000-002 at Auburn University taught by Michael Winand Greene in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see Nutrition and Health in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 02/19/16
Rachel Ferrell NTRI 2000 2/15/16 Chapter 4: Dietary Fiber: • How much do you need? o AI (Adequate Intake)= 25g/day (women) o AI= 38g/day (men) o AI set to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes § Also no RDA o DV (Daily Value)= 25g for a 2000 kcal diet • How much is too much fiber? o >60g/day→extra fluid would be needed o may decrease the availability of some materials o unmet energy needs in children • Starches are digestible→fibers are not o Arrives at the colon intact o Because we don’t have digestible enzymes needed to break the chemical bonds in fiber • Dietary fiber= group of polysaccharides o Similar characteristics→mostly made of indigestible plant polysaccharides Types of Fiber: • Insoluble/Non-‐Fermentable Fiber o Cellulose o Hemicellulose o Lignins • Soluble /Viscous Fiber o Pectins, gums, Mucilages o Fruits, veggies, rice bran, psyllium seed • Whole Grains o 9 in 10 people don’t meet whole grain recommendation of 3 daily servings o Look beyond food label to list of ingredients § Ex. Barley, buckwheat, corn, oats, wheat • Functional Fiber o Ex. Inulin, oligofructose o Added to foods o Resistant to digestion, but fermentable (stimulates bacteria in gut) o Stimulates growth of beneficial bacteria (prebiotic) o Evidence based for designation (many experiments back up this data) Food Labels: • food labels don’t separate soluble from insoluble • Total Fiber= dietary fiber + functional fiber o According to Institute of Medicine Health Benefits of Adequate Fiber: • Insoluble fiber→adds mass to feces→prevents constipation • constipation→increase risk of: o hemorrhoids o Diverticula (inflammation in the colon) • Soluble fiber→fermentable o Attracts water o Delays stomach from emptying o Promotes a feel of being more full (satiety) o Slows glucose absorption from small intestine; therefore lowers need for insulin o Inhibits absorption of cholesterol/ bile acids in bile; therefore lowers blood cholesterol concentrations • Both soluble and insoluble o Aid in body weight control o Reduced risk of colon cancer Chapter 5: Lipids Types: • Triglycerides • Phospholipids • Sterols (cholesterol) Lipid Terms: • “Lipids”= generic term for fats, oils, other • “Fat”= solid at room temp • “oil”= liquid at room temp Triglycerides: • =Storage form of lipids in the body • fats/oil in foods are mostly triglycerides • glycerol backbone + 3 fatty acid chains Fatty Acids: • =chain of carbon atoms flanked by H and an acid group at one end o Omega end= methyl group (CH ) 3 o Alpha end= carboxyl (COOH) • saturated fats= no double bonds • unsaturated fats=double bonds o monounsaturated fat= only one double bond o polyunsaturated fat= more that one double bond Abbreviations: • Saturated fatty acid→SFA • Monounsaturated fatty acid→MUFA • Polyunsaturated fatty acid →PUFA Essential Fatty Acids: • Bodies can only make certain types of fatty acids • Cant make→double bond after 9 carbon from omega end • Omega-‐3 fatty acids/Omega-‐6 fatty acids→essential fatty acids o Omega-‐3 fatty acid= alpha linolenic acid (ALA) o Omega-‐6 fatty acid= linoleic acid (LA) Fatty Acid Forms: • Saturated fatty acids→solid form • Unsaturated fatty acids→liquid forms o Can be cis or trans Composition of Fats: • Complex • Composed of both saturated and unsaturated on glycerol backbone • Many types/species of fatty acids (different number of carbons)
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