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Dr. Green Week 5 Notes

by: Rachel Ferrell

Dr. Green Week 5 Notes NTRI 2000-002

Rachel Ferrell
GPA 4.0

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Nutrition and Health
Michael Winand Greene
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Nutrition and Health

Popular in Nutrition and Food Sciences

This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Ferrell on Friday February 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NTRI 2000-002 at Auburn University taught by Michael Winand Greene in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see Nutrition and Health in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 02/19/16
Rachel  Ferrell   NTRI  2000   2/15/16     Chapter  4:     Dietary  Fiber:   • How  much  do  you  need?   o AI  (Adequate  Intake)=  25g/day  (women)   o AI=  38g/day  (men)   o AI  set  to  reduce  the  risk  of  cardiovascular  disease  and  diabetes   § Also  no  RDA   o DV  (Daily  Value)=  25g  for  a  2000  kcal  diet   • How  much  is  too  much  fiber?   o >60g/day→extra  fluid  would  be  needed   o may  decrease  the  availability  of  some  materials     o unmet  energy  needs  in  children   • Starches  are  digestible→fibers  are  not   o Arrives  at  the  colon  intact   o Because  we  don’t  have  digestible  enzymes  needed  to  break  the  chemical  bonds  in  fiber   • Dietary  fiber=  group  of  polysaccharides   o Similar  characteristics→mostly  made  of  indigestible  plant  polysaccharides   Types  of  Fiber:   • Insoluble/Non-­‐Fermentable  Fiber   o Cellulose   o Hemicellulose   o Lignins   • Soluble  /Viscous  Fiber   o Pectins,  gums,  Mucilages   o Fruits,  veggies,  rice  bran,  psyllium  seed   • Whole  Grains   o 9  in  10  people  don’t  meet  whole  grain  recommendation  of  3  daily  servings   o Look  beyond  food  label  to  list  of  ingredients   § Ex.  Barley,  buckwheat,  corn,  oats,  wheat   • Functional  Fiber   o Ex.  Inulin,  oligofructose   o Added  to  foods   o Resistant  to  digestion,  but  fermentable  (stimulates  bacteria  in  gut)   o Stimulates  growth  of  beneficial  bacteria  (prebiotic)   o Evidence  based  for  designation  (many  experiments  back  up  this  data)   Food  Labels:   • food  labels  don’t  separate  soluble  from  insoluble   • Total  Fiber=  dietary  fiber  +  functional  fiber   o According  to  Institute  of  Medicine   Health  Benefits  of  Adequate  Fiber:   • Insoluble  fiber→adds  mass  to  feces→prevents  constipation   • constipation→increase  risk  of:   o hemorrhoids   o Diverticula  (inflammation  in  the  colon)   • Soluble  fiber→fermentable   o Attracts  water   o Delays  stomach  from  emptying   o Promotes  a  feel  of  being  more  full  (satiety)   o Slows  glucose  absorption  from  small  intestine;  therefore  lowers  need  for  insulin   o Inhibits  absorption  of  cholesterol/  bile  acids  in  bile;  therefore  lowers  blood  cholesterol   concentrations   • Both  soluble  and  insoluble   o Aid  in  body  weight  control   o Reduced  risk  of  colon  cancer     Chapter  5:  Lipids     Types:   • Triglycerides   • Phospholipids   • Sterols  (cholesterol)   Lipid  Terms:   • “Lipids”=  generic  term  for  fats,  oils,  other   • “Fat”=  solid  at  room  temp   • “oil”=  liquid  at  room  temp   Triglycerides:   • =Storage  form  of  lipids  in  the  body   • fats/oil  in  foods  are  mostly  triglycerides   • glycerol  backbone  +  3  fatty  acid  chains   Fatty  Acids:   • =chain  of  carbon  atoms  flanked  by  H  and  an  acid  group  at  one  end   o Omega  end=  methyl  group  (CH ) 3  o Alpha  end=  carboxyl  (COOH)   • saturated  fats=  no  double  bonds   • unsaturated  fats=double  bonds   o monounsaturated  fat=  only  one  double  bond   o polyunsaturated  fat=  more  that  one  double  bond   Abbreviations:   • Saturated  fatty  acid→SFA   • Monounsaturated  fatty  acid→MUFA   • Polyunsaturated  fatty  acid  →PUFA   Essential  Fatty  Acids:   • Bodies  can  only  make  certain  types  of  fatty  acids   • Cant  make→double  bond  after  9  carbon  from  omega  end   • Omega-­‐3  fatty  acids/Omega-­‐6  fatty  acids→essential  fatty  acids   o Omega-­‐3  fatty  acid=  alpha  linolenic  acid  (ALA)   o Omega-­‐6  fatty  acid=  linoleic  acid  (LA)   Fatty  Acid  Forms:   • Saturated  fatty  acids→solid  form   • Unsaturated  fatty  acids→liquid  forms   o Can  be  cis  or  trans   Composition  of  Fats:   • Complex   • Composed  of  both  saturated  and  unsaturated  on  glycerol  backbone   • Many  types/species  of  fatty  acids  (different  number  of  carbons)  


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