History 112 History 112
Popular in American History Since 1865
Popular in History
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sequoia Brown on Friday February 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 112 at University of South Carolina taught by Foxworth in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see American History Since 1865 in History at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 02/19/16
History 112 February 16, 2016 World War One: “The Great War” (Don’t have to know all of the dates but know why WWI started) Why American mattered? The start of WWI -the USA was staying out of European endeavors - A system of alliances that existed that started WWI - There were a number of alliances that were pre-aligned Alliances existed because of geographic vulnerable July 28, 1914: Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand July 28: Emperor Franz Joseph of Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia July 31: As an ally of Serbia, Russia fully mobilizes its armed forces August1: Germany declares war on Russia August 3: Germany declares war on France -would be a big event in war August 4: In an effort to capture Paris quickly, Germany invades neutral Belgium. (in an arch tactic) Britain responds by declaring war on Germany August 6: Austria-Hungary declares war on Russia -most of the fighting happens in northern France between Germany and France There are 2 major groups fighting during the WWI Triple Alliance- Germany, Austria Hungary, Italy Triple Entente / Allies- France, Russia, Great Britain, and USA (later) Technologies of War (How the war is actually fought before the USA became involved) - To some extent is the most modern war of its time - Technologies direct result of the gilded age - Machine is more equipped to kill people - Machine guns, tanks, chemicals o Trench warfare is a major way how Europeans fought o Tanks can penetrate no-mans land o Average day starts off by cleaning weapons, as sun rises you fire at the other side, after breakfast clean up the trenches (a lot of disease comes from trenches), nightfall o Soldiers are divided between chores and fighting Machine guns invented in the 1890’s and first used in WWI Weighs 50 lbs and 75 lb mount but you don’t have to reload after every shot (REALLY EFFETIENT) Chemical warfare (German pioneered)- Chlorine, attacks lungs, and mustard gas, which attacks flesh Air planes- used to gather intelligence U.S Involvement in WWI - U.S was ‘neutral’ but increased trade with Britain, curbed trade with Germany after 1914 - U-boat sinks Lusitania May 7, 1915- no intervention (contributes to US getting involved) o Germans wanted the US to not get involved with the war that they had with Britain o America will continue to trade with Great Britain and Germany will continue to sink boats - “Zimmerman Telegram”- leaked February 25, 1917- possible threat of Mexico/ Germany alliance o Telegram leaked from German to German minister in Mexico, talks about the possible alliance with Mexico and America and if Mexico wants to declare war on US the Germans will help them reclaim them land o Americans feared Mexican retaliation (very defecating effects for the USA)- USA felt threatened o More American vessels sunk by German U-boats - As result of Telegram: o President Wilson asks Congress for declaration of war, April 2, 1917 - Russia pull out of WWI in 1919 because of civil war About the war: - Importance of wheat: o Farmers are excelling during the war because they are sending wheat to the allies o Wheat is a commodity o No production of bear Roots of prohibition o WWI brings up the idea of immigration- German immigrants are in the US but they help with the war by distributing wheat o Liberty bonds are patriotic - Wilson signs the Selective Service Acts- drafts 2.8 million men into the war o 2 million men also volunteered - Woman have new opportunities to work in government agencies (secretary) - D.E.B. Dubois- advocated for black men in the war - Allice Paul- militant approach (advocated for womans suffrage) o Called Wilson, Kaiser Wilson because you can’t call the US a democracy when woman cannot vote Fourteen Points Plan for Peace Wilson want to mediate peace and wants the world to be safe under democratic government - Wilson’s plan for new democratic world order in Europe; reflected moralism and liberal ideals - #1-5: end to secret treaties, freedom of seas, no barriers to free trade, reduction of weapons of war, right to self-determination for colonized people - #6-13- self-determination for former German territories - * very important* #14: establishment of a League of Nations - NOT passed by Congress; US did NOT join League of Nations, devastating for Wilson Postwar Politics in the U.S - Wilson becomes the Reluctant Progressive: tariff reform, 8-hour workday, child labor, woman suffrage - 18 Amendment (1917) and the 19 Amendment (1920) passed by Congress and ratified by the states- sets the tone for the 1920s - Labor struggles in the aftermath of the Russian Revolution- fears of communist uprising Brown 1 History 112 February 18, 2016 The 1920’s Themes: - Trends against government in business (except for 18 amendment) nd - Fear of radicals and foreigners, 2 rise of KKK - Cultural innovations test social boundaries - Revival of religious fundamentalism in response to cultural and intellectual changes 3 Republican presidents in the era - Not a Theodore Roosevelt type republican - Doesn’t look to government - Very strict economic Republican - Not a radical Republican - Looks at economy and doesn’t want government intervention (limited government is a good government in order for business to grow) Warren Harding (1920 Election) “A return to Normalcy”: end Progressive Era intervention - Administration tainted with scandals o Ethical issues in administration o Known for appointing wealthy colleagues o Tea Pot Dome scandal - Cuts taxes - Dies in August 1923 (while in office) Calvin Coolidge (1924 Election) - Continues Harding’s economic emphasis without the corruption - Further reduces federal intervention in the economy Brown 2 Red Scare 1919-1920 - Influence of Russian Revolution - Immediate postwar economic certainty leads to labor unrest and major strikes - Sedition Act makes it illegal to criticize the government- immigrants and unions become target - Palmer Raids - Rise of the American Civil Liberties Union 2 rise of the KKK (Different than in Reconstruction- and not limited to the South) - Link to Great Migration-not just in the South - Designed to protect the “Nordic race”, native white Protestant supremacy - Targets African Americans, immigrants, Catholics, Jews - They see activism as ‘patriotism’ Important Trial: Sacco and Vanzetti Trial (1920) anti-immigrant - In 1924 congress passes the national origin act o The number of immigrants who get to come into the country is based off of the percent of people already in the country o Each country gets a certain percentage of people that can come into the country - Two Italian immigrants executed for murder and robbery of Slater and Morrill Shoe Factory - Public bias against radical politics displayed at the trail- ‘evidence’ against them was their anarchist politics and efforts to dodge WWI service Harlem Renaissance- product of the Great Migration (job opportunities, get away from Jim Crow laws - Return of WW1 soldiers - Harlem: a segregated community that becomes a center for arts and literature Brown 3 - “New Negro”= overcomes social constraints to demonstrate creative genius - Zora Neale Hurston, A. Phillip Randolph, W.E.B. Dubois, Marcus Garvey, Langston Hughes Jazz Culture - Soundtrack for the Roaring Twenties- syncopated vernacular rhythms with movement - Origins in slave field songs and blues tradition o Blues were an expression of peoples pain, and to tell your actually political without being too vocal about it - Distinctly American sound comes out of New Orleans - Great Migration makes Chicago, New York centers Consumer Culture - Radio communications from WWI becomes available to the public- NBC founded 1926 as radio network - Art/ music + commerce = new formula for business promotion and consumption of culture - Henry Ford introduces mass assembly line at River Rouge plant in Detroit, 1914 -- $5/day wages - Automobile becomes middle-class norm, becomes part of teenage culture, contributes to changing sexual norms in early 20 century Saying goodbye to Victorian Womanhood