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The Process of Strategic Communication

by: Jordan Derby

The Process of Strategic Communication 10300

Marketplace > Ithaca College > 10300 > The Process of Strategic Communication
Jordan Derby
GPA 3.595

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Week 3 Notes: Process of Research Method
Intro to Strategic Communications
Howard K. Kalman
Class Notes
Strategic communication
25 ?




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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jordan Derby on Friday February 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 10300 at Ithaca College taught by Howard K. Kalman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views.


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Date Created: 02/19/16
Strategic  Communications  is  a  Process       By:  Yvette  Sterbenk    Public  Relations  as  a  Process:  RACE   • Research   o Defining  PR  Problems   • Action   o Program  Planning   • Communication   o Executing   • Evaluation   o Evaluating  the  Program     Instructional  Design:  The  ADDIE  Model   • Analysis   • Design   • Development   • Implementation   • Evaluation     GAME  Model   • Goal   • Audience   • Message   • Evaluation   R-­‐GAME   • Research   • Goal   • Audience   • Message   • Evaluation     Based  on  Research:   • Set  your  goals:   o What  do  you  want  to  accomplish?   o How  much  time  do  you  have?   o What  resources  do  I  have  to  work  with   • How  do  your  communications  goals  align  with  your  business  goals     Who  are  you  Targeting?:   • Who  is  my  audience?   • What  do  they  know?   • Why  should  they  care?   Primary  Audience   • Will  make  a  decision  or  act  on  the  basis  of  your  message   o Customers,  employees   Secondary  Audience   • May  be  asked  by  the  primary  audience  to  comment  on  your  message  or  to   implement  your  ideas  after  they’ve  been  approved   o Media,  vendors     Identifying  your  Target  Audience:   • Demographics   o Age   o Gender   o Martial  Status   o Geographic  Location   o Education  Level   o Income  Level   • Behavior   o Health  Choices   o Online  Engagement   o Media  Consumption   • Psychographics   o Lifestyle   o Interests       o Values   o Beliefs     Audience  and  What  they  want:   • Develop  your  message:   o What’s  the  core  message?   o How  can  I  effectively  communicate  it?   o What  is/are  the  best  channel(s)….   • Messages  have  to  resonate  with  audience   o Test  your  messages  prior  to  putting  them  out  in  the  public     Final  GAME  Step-­‐  Evaluate:   • Measure  your  Success   o Did  your  communication  work?   o Were  my  goals  accomplished?   o What  was  the  return  on  investment  (ROI)?   (the  final  step  is  usually  the  most  forgotten  step)     Applying  the  Concept:   The  Gap  Research  Question:   • Survey  Millennial:   o Ask  what  they  don’t  like  about  it   o What  they  wear/would  wear   • Have  an  icon  wear  the  brand   • What’s  selling  well  to  the  millennia’s     Business  Goal:   • Sell  more  products  and  diversify  audience   Communications  Goal:   • Increase  interaction  with  millennia’s  online   Primary  Audience:   • Current  Customers,  Employees,  potential  customers   Secondary  Audience:   • Media   • Vendors  for  new  apparel  look   Messages:   • Celebrity  endorse   • Show  that  the  company  is  modernizing  its  look   Channels:   • Celebrity   • Social  Media   • Traditional  Media   Evaluating  Success:   • Look  at  the  sales   • Followings/Engagement  on  Social  Media   • Post  Survey  for  demographics     GAME  for  Barbie  Campaign:   • Goal:   o Change  the  perception  of  Barbie   • Research:   o Sales  of  Barbie’s  prior  to  commercial   o Sales  of  Barbie’s  after  the  commercial   o Why  Barbie’s  aren’t  being  bought   • Audience:   o Parents  of/and  younger  girls   • Evaluate:   o Sales  on  Barbie’s   o Perception  change     SC  is:   • Audience  Driven   • Brand  Focused   • Persuasive   • Intentionally  Designed   • Marketed         Class  Lectures:     Types  of  Research:   • Experimental  Research  Design   • Correlational  Research   • Meta-­‐Analysis   • Descriptive  Research/Case  Studies   • Evaluation  Research   • Action  Research/Needs  Assessments     Types  of  Evaluation:   • Formative   o Improve  a  program  under  development   • Summative   o Assess  quality  in  final  form   • Confirmative   o Confirm  something  continues  to  work  well  over  time     Research  Process:   1. Start  with  an  interesting  question   a. May  be  stated  as  a  problem   b. A  barrier  or  gap  in  current  knowledge   c. Conduct  a  background  literature  review   2. Formulate  research  question  (hypothesis)   a. Educated  guess  about  relationship  among  variables   b. Ground  hypothesis  in  reason  &  experience   c. Critically  think  through  factors  &  select  variables  to  study     3. Design  study  and  collect  data   a. Select  data  collection  methods  (interviews,  observation,  surveys,   focus  groups)   b. Or  design  experiment  with  lab  subjects   c. Relationship  among  variables  is  what  is  assessed   4. Analyze  the  data   a. Statistics,  ethnographic  coding,  etc.   5. Interpret  and  report  findings   a. Discuss  patterns  &  explain  findings   b. Write  up  results  (consider  publication     Refereed/Peer  Preview:   • Ensures  that  research  study  met  rigorous  scientific  methods   o Reduces  publication  of  flawed  studies   • Manuscript  is  read  blind  by  several  reviewers   o Reviewers  don’t  know  who  author  is     o Provide  extensive  comments  on  research   o Recommend  for/against  publication   o Acceptance  rates  vary—can  be  very  low  (<10%)     Characteristic  of  Good  Research:   • Requires  Evidence  (data):   o Empiricism:  Observation,  measured   • Systematic   o Study  is  repeatable  (replication)   o Claims  can  be  tested  (checked  for  falsification)   • Unbiased  (Objective):   o Avoids  Introducing  error;  triangulation   • Generalization;  requires  multiple  studies   • Research  must  be  based  on  evidence   o Empirical—based  on  careful  systematic  observation   • Research  must  be  testable   o Must  be  able  to  investigate  using  some  methodology   • Results  must  be  replicable  or  repeatable   o Ensures  that  findings  are  real  and  can  be  counted  on   • Must  be  part  of  the  public  record   o So  others  can  repeat,  challenge,  find  errors,  correct   • Objectivity  requires  researcher  to  minimize  personal  bias  and  distortion   • “Generalize-­‐ability”  of  findings   o Findings  can  be  extended  to  similar  situations  or  similar  people     Research  Myths:   • Conclusions  can  be  drawn  from  a  single  study   • Quantitative  methods  are  better  than  qualitative  methods   o Hard  measures  are  objective   o One  method  can  answer  all  questions   • Results  can  not  be  “proved”  only  falsified     Process  Oriented:   • Many  process  models     o Most  are  project  management  models   • Domain-­‐Specific  Models   o Most  have  similar  elements     • Different  Models:   o Generic.  =  GAME   o Public  Relations  =  RACE   o Training  =  ADDIE   o HR/Comm  Audit    =  HPT   o Advertising    =  AIDA   **Different  models  emphasize  and  deemphasize  different  things   Budget  in  a  model       GAME  Process  Model:   • Goal-­‐  Specific,  Measurable,  Resources   o Aim  to  accomplish,  identify  time  &  resources     • Audience-­‐  Research,  Profile,  Target   o Who  they  are,  What  do  they  know,  motivation   • Message-­‐  Design,  Test,  Deliver  (Implement)   o What’s  core  message,  design,  how  to  disseminate   • Evaluate-­‐  Metrics,  ROI,  Modify   o How  measure  success,  outcomes  achieved,  ROI     AIDA  Model  (Advertising  Process  Model):   • Awareness-­‐  Attract  Attention   • Interest-­‐  Provide  some  information  to  create  interest   • Desire-­‐  Describe  benefits;  use  images  and  language  to  persuade   • Action-­‐  Urge  action  (time  limit  for  price  promotion)       General  Principles:   • Sequence   • Each  step/phase  builds  on  the  previous  one   • Each  component  works  together  as  a  system   o Each  art/step/phase  is  interdependent     PDCA  Model-­‐  Total  Quality  Management  Model     HPT  Model-­‐  Performance  Improvement  Model   • Gap  Analysis   o Current  vs.  Desired  State;  Identifies  needs   o Linked  to  organization’s  strategic  goals   • Cause  Analysis   o Identifies  underlying  root  cause(s)  of  performance  problems   • Intervention  Selection   o Chooses  one  or  more  solutions  to  rectify  problem(s)-­‐-­‐systemic   • Implementation   o Introduces  change  program  (communicates  &  provides  support)   o Considers  organization’s  culture  and  history   • Evaluates  intervention  over  time  (summative  &  confirmative)     Rapid  Prototyping  Model     Strategic  Marketing  Model:   • Situation  Analysis   • Marketing  Strategy   • Marketing  Mix  Decisions   • Implementation  &  Control     Event  Planning  Model:   • Objectives   • Draft  Outline  Plan   • Detailed  Planning   • Organizing  the  Event   • Implementation   • Conclusion/Evaluation     Crisis  Communication  Model     Value  of  Models:   • Verbal  or  visual  representation   o Represents  how  something  works   o Some  models  have  greater  fidelity  than  others   • Promotes  consistent  and  systematic  approach  to  doing  work   o All  steps  essential  and  interdependent   • Reduces  uncertainty   • Serves  as  a  guide  for  accomplishing  tasks   o Step-­‐by-­‐step     Why  So  Many  Models?   • Many  models  are  similar   o Many  include  the  same  components   o Each  emphasizes  different  components   o Modify  or  adapt  to  specific  contexts  or  situations  (models  are  flexible)   • Why  do  people  keep  “re-­‐inventing”  them?   o Dissatisfied  with  existing  models   o Incomplete  representations   • Most  models  appear  linear,  but  are  not  intended  to  be  that  way     In  concerns  with  Problems:   • Apply  Theories  and  Processes:   • Need  to  understand  context  and  broader  concept  in  order  to  have  an  edge   and  do  better        


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