Organismal Biology Vocabulary List 4
Organismal Biology Vocabulary List 4 BIOL 1030 - 002
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brooke Polinsky on Friday February 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1030 - 002 at Auburn University taught by Debbie R. Folkerts in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Organismal Biology in Biology at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 02/19/16
Vocabulary List for Exam 2: VOCABULARY LIST 4 1.fundamental tissue systems= connects all plants organs; continuous throughout the plant but their speciﬁc characteristics and spatial relationships to one another diﬀer in diﬀerent organs 2.dermal tissue= plants outer protective covering. Like a skin it forms the ﬁrst line of defense against physical damage and pathogens. 3.vascular tissue= facilitate the transport of materials through the plant and two provide mechanical support. Two types of vascular tissues are xylem and phloem. 4.xylem=vascular plant tissue consisting of mainly of tubular dead cells that conduct most of the water and minerals upward from the roots to the rest of the plants 5.phloem=vascular tissue consisting of living cells arranged into elongated tubes that transport sugar and other organic nutrients throughout the pant 6.ground tissue= tissues that are neither vascular or dermal; includes specialized cells for functions such as storage, photosynthesis, support, and short-distance transport. -Ground tissue that is internal to vascular tissue is called the pith -Ground tissue that is external to vascular tissue is called the cortex 7.organs= a specialized center of body function composed of several diﬀerent tissue types 8.roots= an organ in vascular plants that anchors the plant and enables it to absorb water and minerals from the soil 9.shoots= the aerial portion of the plant body, consisting of of stems, leaves, and (in angiosperms) ﬂowers 10.leaves= main photosynthetic organ of a vascular plant 11.apical meristem= embryonic plant tissue that in the tips of roots and buds of shoots. The dividing cells of the apical meristem enable the plant to grow in length 12.primary plant body= allows roots to extend throughout the soil and shoots to increase their exposure to light; caused by apical meristems 13.lateral meristems=a meristem that thickens the roots and shoots of woody plants. The vascular cambium and cork cambium are lateral meristems 14.secondary plant body= caused by lateral meristems and is a growth in thickness 15.annual= plants that complete their life cycle from germination to ﬂowering to seed production to death in a single year or less 16.perennial= complete life cycle in many years and include trees, shrubs, and some grasses 17.microphylls=a small leaf with a single unbranched vein 18.megaphylls=a leaf with a highly branched vascular system, characteristic of a vast majority of vascular plants 19.homospory=plant that has a single kind of spore, which typically develops into a bisexual gametophyte 20.heterospory= plant pieces with two kinds of spores: microspores, which develop into male gametophytes and megaspores, which develop into female gametophytes 21.microspores= a spore from a heterosporous plant that develops into a male gametophyte 22.megaspores= a spore from a htereosporous plant that develops into a female gametophyte 23.phylum Lycophyta= phylum of plants that includes: club mosses, spike mosses, and quillworts; most ancient group of vascular plants; sporophytes have upright stems with many small leaves as well as ground hugging stems that produce dichotomously branching roots 24.club moss= sporophylls are clustered in cone shaped cones (strobili); all homosporous; spores are released in clouds and are so rich in oil that magicians and photographers one ignited them to create smoke or ﬂashes of light 25.ground pine= club moss with small, shiny leaves, resembling a miniature conifer 26.resurrection fern= a fern is a type of epiphytic fern, meaning that it grows on top of other plants or structures and that it reproduces by spores, not seeds. The spores are housed in structures called sori on the underside of fronds 27.quillwort= named for their leaf shape, form a single genus whose members live in marshy areas or as submerged aquatic plants; heterosporous 28.strobilus (-i)= a cluster of sporophylls 29.phylum Psilotophyta= the only vascular plants lacking true roots and are called living fossils because of they resemblance to fossils of ancient relatives of living vascular plants 30.whisk fern= sporophytes of whisk ferns have dichotomously branched stems but no roots; stems have scalelike outgrowths that lack vascular tissue and may have resulted from evolutionary reduction of leaves 31.phylulm Arthrophyta= jointed plants 32.Equisetum= horse tails thats group name refers to the bushy appearance of the stems, which have a gritty texture that made them historically useful as scorching rushes for pots and pans 33.horsetails= homosporous with cones releasing spores that typically give rise to bisexual gametophytes; also called arthrophytes because their stems have joints 34.scouring rushes= structure of horsetails 35.sporangiophores= strobulis produces this and the apragnia are contained inside of this 36.elaters= coiled around each meiospore and used for sipersal of sperm; also hygroscopic 37.nodes=a point along the stem the plant at which the leaves are attached 38.internodes= a segment of the plant stem between the points where the leaves are attached 39.phylum Pterophyta= true ferns, biggest phylum in Moncilophyta 40.circinate vernation= the specialized pattern of leaf development that occurs in ferns - in which the leaf unrolls from the ﬁddlehead 41.compound leaves= may withstand strong wind with less tearing and also may conﬁne some pathogens that invade the leaf to a single leaﬂet, rather then allowing them to spread to the entire leaf 42.frond= true leaf of a fern 43.pinna (ae)= each leaﬂet is called a pinna and multiple leaﬂets are called pinnae 44.rhizome= a horizontal shoot that grows just below the surface. Vertical shoots emerge form eauxiliary buds on the rhizome. 45.adventitious roots=small roots that emerge form the stem; describing a plant that grows from an unusual source such as root raising from stems or leafs 46.sorus (i)= a cluster of sporangia on a fern sporophyll. Sori may be arranged in various patterns, such as parallel lines or dots, which are useful for identiﬁcation 47.prothallus= the gametophyte of a fern 48.protonema=a mass of green, branched, one cell thick ﬁlaments produced by germinating moss spores.
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