Life 103 Week 5
Life 103 Week 5 LIFE 103
Popular in Biology of Organisms-Animals and Plants
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This 1 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caroline Hurlbut on Friday February 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LIFE 103 at Colorado State University taught by Jennifer L Neuwald; Tanya Anne Dewey in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Biology of Organisms-Animals and Plants in Biology at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 02/19/16
Flowering Plants angiosperms - seed plants with reproductive structures called ﬂowers and fruits; • most widespread and diverse of all plants • all angiosperms are in a single phylum, anthophyta —ﬂowers and fruits are two key adaptations of angiosperms • ﬂowers - angiosperm structure specialized for sexual reproduction • fruits - mature ovary (and sometimes other ﬂower parts) that protect the seeds and aid in seed dispersal • ﬂowers have up to 4 types of modiﬁed leaves —sepals: enclose the ﬂower —petals: brightly colored to attract pollinators —stamens: consist of ﬁlament stalk with sac called an anther, which produces pollen —carpels: consist of ovary with an embryo sac and a style leading up to a stigma, where pollen is received • fruit is formed when the ovary wall thickens and matures and can be ﬂeshy or dry —colorful ﬂeshy fruits attract animals to eat the fruit and disperse the seeds • various fruit adaptations help disperse seeds —seeds can be carried by wind, water, or animals • ovule entered by a pore called a micropyle—>double fertilization, in which 2 sperms are released —one sperm fertilizes egg, the other combines with two nuclei in the central cell of female gametophyte and initiates development of food-storing endosperm —triploid endosperm (3n) nourishes developing embryo • angiosperms were previously divided into two groups —monocots: 1 cotyledon (seed leaf) —dicots: 2 cotyledons • high diversity—> angiosperm specialization in many unique environments • the clade eudicot included most dicots • basal angiosperms include ﬂowering plants belonging to oldest lineages —amborella, water lilies, star anise • magnoliids share some traits with basal angiosperms but evolved later —magnolias, laurels, black pepper • monocots make up 25% of all living angiosperms —1 cotyledon —lack main roots —ﬂoral organs in multiples of 3 —orchids, palms, grasses • eudicots make up 2/3 of all living angiosperms —2 cotyledons —main taproot —ﬂoral organs in multiples of 4 and 5 —legumes (peas, beans), rose family • human reliance on seed plants makes preservation of plant diversity critical
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