Exam 1 Information via Weeks of Notes
Exam 1 Information via Weeks of Notes PSYCH 270
Popular in Abnormal Psychology
Popular in Department
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Myhre on Friday February 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 270 at University of North Dakota taught by Dr. Virginia Clinton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views.
Reviews for Exam 1 Information via Weeks of Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/19/16
Chapter 1 Abnormality: behavior is inconsistent w/ the person’s devel., cultural & societal norms, and interferes w/ daily func. &emotional distress Distress: u r upset with __ Dysfunction: u r having diff. in func. Deviance: not w/social norms Developmental Norms: not okay w/ ur age Goodness of Fit: deviance depends on enviro Developmental Trajectory: Symp. Vary w/age Ancient theories of Abnormality Trephination: using a circular object to cut away skull, treat. For abnormal behaviors, released evil spirits Hippocrates: father of medicine, made diagnostic classification, model to explain abnormal behavior, identified hallucinations, delusions, melancholia, mania, hysteria Hysteria: females blind or paralyzed, thought was it was due to empty uterus, cure was marriage or pregnancy Four bodily humors: Hip believe enviro&physical factors made imbalance Blood: courageous and hopeful Phlem: calm and unemo attitude Yellow Bile: cause mania Black Bile: cause melancholia/removal of blood Avicenna: prince and chief of physicians, 2 teacher after Aristotle Cannon of Medicine: depress. from mix of humors, physical diseases were from emo distress, + to music and emo distress View of abnormality in Middle Ages and Renaissance Mass hysteria: people convinced they were possessed by demons Emotional Contagion: auto mimicry of expressions, vocalizations, postures, and movements Enlightenment: how to treat mental illness, religion would help mental ill Philippe Pinel: illness is curable, calm and order w/in his asylums, removed restraints and had daytime activities for patients Dorothea Dix: moral treatment in US, 32 asylums, treatment, research, education of illness Mesmer: animal magnetism: flow in body freely but when obstructed disease occurred Placebo effect: symptoms gone becuz of specific treatment Kraeplin: scientific method to look at illness, devel. Etiology and prognosis dementia praecox: schizophrenia, autointoxication: body poisoned itself Josef Breuer: study hypnotism on hysteria, Anna O. w/ conversion discussed experience, treatment called talking cure Psychoanalysis: both normal and abnorm behav, first 5 yrs. of life Id: seeking pleasure/sexual desires, unconscious Ego: balance out super & id, conscious and unconscious Superego: moral compass, partly conscious/unconscious, manages id’s impulses Defense Mechanisms: denial: acting as if it doesn’t exist Displacement: taking out anger on a target Intellectualization: avoiding emotions to focus on intel. aspects of event Projection: your impulses on someone else Rationalization: using possible info for behavior than real reason Reaction formation: taking opp. belief if true one causes anxiety Regression: returning to early devel. stage Repression: forgetting a conscious thought Sublimation: acting out impulses in an acceptable way Suppression: pushing unwanted thoughts to unconscious Undoing: try to take back bad behavior Insight: free association: person tells analyst everything that comes to mind, drawing info from unconscious conflicts dream analysis: individ. Are encouraged to recall their dreams and discuss analytically “royal road to the unconscious,” symbolic images, meaning of conflict interpretation: focus on present issues and conclude person’s past and present, dreams/fantasies are looked at Modern psychoanalysis: no more id, Alder: sibling rivalry, birth order, inferiority complex, family issues Ego Psychology: conscious motivation and healthy forms of human func. object relations theory: people’s emo ties to objects Behaviorism: CC: Watson, Pavlov//OC: Skinner Classical conditioning: US: rat UR: fear CS: rat CR: fear Neu S: BANG Counter Conditioning: associate fav item w/ fear=learn to love both Systematic Desensitization: treating intense fear, slow introduce fear, and it goes away Operant conditioning: pos reinforcement: add, increase behavior neg reinforcement: remove, increase behavior pos punishment: add, decrease behavior neg punishment: remove, decrease behavior Social learning theory: Bandura: Modeling/ Observational learning we learn from others Vicarious conditioning: the person watches a model, and demonstrates a behavior (learn from parents: do what they do) Biological model: abnormal starts in brain, brain composed of neurotransmitters, people will either have enough trans, or not enough/too many=abnormal Viral infection theory: prenatal viral infections in mother could cause brain abnormalities Alzheimer’s disease: most common dementia, cognitive decline, memory loss, lang. diff., no care for self, rd more plaques and tangles=3 ventricle full Biological scarring: years of living with the disorder caused brain changes Behavioral genetics: study heritability in a person’s traits Cognitive model: how you think can influence behav Aaron Beck: neg view on self, world, future=cognitive distortions Humanistic model: people are good and motivated to selfactualize, troubles w/selfimage and actual self Carl Rogers: Unconditional positive regardno matter what patient says you stay positive, client centered therapymeeting client’s needs, speaking with them to reach their full potential Sociocultural model: gender+SES+culture=influences type of disorder a person may have Biopsychosocial model: biogenes, hormones psychthoughts cognition socnorms, stress Diathesisstress model: disorder have bio or psych predisposition (diathesis) that lies dormant until stress occurs Chapter 2 Respect for persons: people in a study must be able to make decisions about themselves Beneficence: researchers don’t harm/minimize harm Informed consent: what is happening, purpose, procedure, risk/nemesis, and it is voluntary Central nervous system: brain+spinal cord, 100 billion nerve cells Peripheral nervous system: body Neuron: axon, neurotransmitter, synapse Sympathetic: fight or flight Parasympathetic: slows down heart, respiration, returning body to norm state Familial aggregation: examine family members of person with a disorder to see if they are more likely to have disorder than family//see patters or see sporadic Proband: person w/ disorder in a familial aggregation study Twin studies: identical: mono, fraternal: dizy//helps with environmental factors Descriptive research Case studies: description of person or group, that focuses on the assessment of abnormal behavior or treatment Naturalistic observation: watch, describe behavior//Hawthorne effect: observing changes behavior Surveys/interviews: ask specific questions, large #sur, smallinterview Experiments and random assignment: messing with environment/study, each participant is give equal probability of being assigned to exper or control Independ Variable: experimenter controls Dependent variables: assessed to see the effect of IV rd Causal inference: correlation between two V can be due to a shared correlation with an unmeasured 3 V Correlations: positive: high score of correlation w/two V negative: low score Correlation is not causation! Crosssectional: snapshot in time (80s, 90s) Longitudinal: takes place over time more than twice w/ same people Epidemiological research designs: disease patterns in populations and factors of influence, prevalence: # of cases of disorder in population, Observational Epi: presence of physical or psychological disorders in population Exper Epi: scientist manipulates exposure to either causal or preventive factors Chapter 3 Clinical assessment: gathering info of person w/enviro make decisions of nature, status, and treatment of psych probs Standardization: assessments results in context w/population Reliability: consistency of a test Validity: whether a test measures what it was intended to measure Screenings: identify psychological probs or predict risk of future Unstructured Interview: clinician decides what questions to ask and how to ask them Structured Interview: clinician asks a standard set of questions, goal of a diagnosis Psychological tests: measure dimensions such as personality characteristics, general psych func, intell, and behavior Behavioral assessment: learning to understand behavior and functional analysis, identify casual links between problem behaviors and contextual variables. Selfmonitor: patient observes and records their own behavior as it happens Behavioral avoidance: test to assess phobias and avoidance behaviors Psychophysiological assessment: measure brain structure, function, and NS EEG: sensors on skull pick up electrical activity from brain Electrodermal Activity: measures sweat, looks at electrolytes in the sweat of skin Biofeedback: patients learn to modify physical responses such as heart rate, respiration, and body temp Neg to diagnostic systems: labeling, inaccurate assumptions by clinicians, stigma that mental health is bad, overmedication selffulfilling prophecy: prediction that causes it to be true Diagnostic and statistical manual (DSM): to diagnose, give treatment plan, see outcome, agreed terms, rule out physical condition Critiques of the DSM: too many people are disordered, border between diagnoses, disorder and normal, decisions to include judgements, labels how we interpret Dimensional versus: functioning, supported by high frequency of comorbidity, richer descriptions, more complex to explain Categorical systems: discrete clinical conditions, easier to understand, requires consensus on boundaries, subthreshold syndromes Comorbidity: more than one disorder Chapter 4 What is anxiety: worrying, thinking about future, time limited, physical symptoms Panic attacks: intense fear, abrupt onset, expected or unexpected, sweating, shaking, choking Panic disorder: Reoccurring panic attacks in one month Agoraphobia: fear of in public and can’t handle panic attack, situation has fear w/it, 6+ mth Generalized anxiety disorder: excessive worry, difficult to control, distress&dysf, 6+ mth Social anxiety disorder: situational fear to scrutiny by others, out of proportion, 6+mth Specific phobia: fear to object situation, actively avoided, out of proportion, 6+mth Obsessivecompulsive disorder: obsession is thought, compulsion is acting on it, time consuming 1+ hr, PTSD: exposure to death, injury, sexual violence, memories, dreams, flashbacks, avoid stimuli with event, neg effect on mood, 1 mth. Separation anxiety disorder: lots of fear with Sep., worry, distress, won’t leave them, nightmares of sep, 4week in child, 6+mth in adult Body dysmorphic disorder: defects or flaws, repetitive behaviors to check, distress, not concerned with weight, Heritability of anxiety disorders: between siblings and parent child, Trait Anxiety: high are more reactive to stressful events, and develop a disorder Temperament: personality components are biological or genetic, from birth are stable across time and situations Brain differences OCDPTSD: trauma changes amygdala=emo, impulse control and habits has a different blood flow in brain Anxiety and Neurotran: Nor=too much, Sera=too little, Dope=too little? GABA: affects postsynaptic activity, restricting prevents anxiety Cortisol: produced by adrenal glands, causes stress in body Evolutionary explanations for phobias: humanphobic objectssnakes, heights, closed spaces darkness. Non phobicfish, low places, open spaces, bright light. Dangerousnonguns, electricity, cars Psychoanalytic viewpoint for anxiety: conflict in id and ego, sexual an aggressive impulses, defense mechanisms Behaviorist explanations Classical Conditioning: ustrauma, urfear, cssetting of trauma, crfear involuntary Operant conditioning: negative reinforcement, changing thinking to develop anxiety Vicarious learning: watch others who are anxious can increase you anxiety Cognitive viewpoint: one is hypersensitive to bodily sensations, fear of fear model, distorted cognitions or faulty beliefs Fear of fear model: fear of the fear reoccurring again Distorted cognitions: thinking the fear is way out of proportion Biological treatment: SSRIsselective reuptake inhibitors for depletion of serotonin, Prozac, Lucox, Zoloft//Benzodiazepines for GABA which reduces anxiety, Valium and Xanax addictive Psychodynamic treatment: uses free association and dream interpretation, finding the underlying problem, IPT good for anxiety disorders to talk about it Behavioral treatments: Exposurefacing fears//Systematicpicture to toy to real thing//Social Skillsobserve other people in situation w/fear Cognitive behavioral therapy: exposure in combo with cognitive restructuring, hypothesis testing generate positive coping cognitions to counteract the negative thoughts, relaxation training and biofeedback Chapter 5 Somatoform disorders: one or more somatic symptoms plus abnormal/excessive thoughts, feeling, and behaviors regarding the symptoms Conversion disorder: 1+ altered voluntary motor, or sensory func, Illness anxiety disorder: fears about having an illness that persist despite medical reassurance, lots of anxiety, comorbid with anxiety, avoid hospital, no symptoms present, 6mth Transient hypochondriasis: due to environment, temporary comorbidity not as common Factitious disorder self: signs and symptoms intentionally produced, eager for medical attention, no external awards Factitious disorder others: signs and symptoms intentionally produced on another, presents another as ill, no external reward Developmental considerations: minor health complaints are normal for young children, reinforcement of complaints can perpetuate and mimicry of symptoms Malingering: not a disorder, lying to get what they want physical/psych healthy, external rewards, deliberate, get what they want symptom gone Psychodynamic viewpoint: intrapsychic conflict and defense mechanisms, neg feelings become physical symptoms, factitiousmastery or control, masochism, deprived childhood, be an abuser after being abused Behaviorist viewpoint: encouraged health concerns, reinforcement for being ill, modeling is reinforced Cognitive viewpoint: form of communication, for people to express difficult emo, emotions converted to physical symptoms Somatic amplification: increased awareness of somatic symptoms, perceive normal body and organ sensations as being intense, or disturbing Dissociative disorders: disruption in the usually integrated functions of consciousness, memory, identity, or perception of the environment Depersonalization: feeling of detachment from one’s body, watching your life as someone else, feel detached Derealization: feeling of unfamiliarity or unreality about the environment, in a dream, conscious amnesia: physical traumastroke, low blood sugar, booze blackout, hit to the head identity confusion: confusion about who a person is identity alteration: being markedly different from another part of oneself Dissociative amnesia: psychological trauma localized: a certain time period you cannot remember selective: remember most of life except for the trauma generalized: can’t remember anything at all, identity/life history Dissociative amnesia with fugue: loss of personal identity and memory, often involving a flight from their life, sense of self gone, can func normally Depersonalization Disorder: both depreson and derealization Dissociative identity disorder: presence within a person of two+ personality states, their own things, alters, amnesia between alters Psychosocial: childhood sexual abuse, repressed/recovered memories Recovered/repressed childhood memories: repressed mem are not inherently unreliable, memories recalled in the context of therapy Treatment of dissociative disorders: dissociative amnesia resolves itself, antidepressants for dereal and DID, CBT used to work with symptoms of physical distress, CBT used to restructure thoughts and other sources for where memory loss started
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'