New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Exam 1 Information via Weeks of Notes

by: Emma Myhre

Exam 1 Information via Weeks of Notes PSYCH 270

Marketplace > University of North Dakota > PSYCH 270 > Exam 1 Information via Weeks of Notes
Emma Myhre
GPA 2.791
View Full Document for 0 Karma

View Full Document


Unlock These Notes for FREE

Enter your email below and we will instantly email you these Notes for Abnormal Psychology

(Limited time offer)

Unlock Notes

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Unlock FREE Class Notes

Enter your email below to receive Abnormal Psychology notes

Everyone needs better class notes. Enter your email and we will send you notes for this class for free.

Unlock FREE notes

About this Document

These are all the information vocabulary from the book that is needed to know for the upcoming exam.
Abnormal Psychology
Dr. Virginia Clinton
Class Notes
abnormal psych, PSYCH270, virginia clinton




Popular in Abnormal Psychology

Popular in Department

This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Myhre on Friday February 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 270 at University of North Dakota taught by Dr. Virginia Clinton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views.

Similar to PSYCH 270 at UND


Reviews for Exam 1 Information via Weeks of Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/19/16
Chapter 1 Abnormality: behavior is inconsistent w/ the person’s devel., cultural & societal norms, and interferes w/ daily  func. &emotional distress ­­Distress: u r upset with __ ­­Dysfunction: u r having diff. in func. ­­Deviance: not w/social norms ­­Developmental Norms: not okay w/ ur age Goodness of Fit: deviance depends on enviro Developmental Trajectory: Symp. Vary w/age Ancient theories of Abnormality Trephination: using a circular object to cut away skull, treat. For abnormal behaviors, released evil spirits Hippocrates: father of medicine, made diagnostic classification, model to explain abnormal behavior, identified hallucinations, delusions, melancholia, mania, hysteria ­­Hysteria: females blind or paralyzed, thought was it was due to empty uterus, cure was marriage or pregnancy ­­Four bodily humors: Hip believe enviro&physical factors made imbalance ­­­­Blood: courageous and hopeful  ­­­­Phlem: calm and unemo attitude  ­­­­Yellow Bile: cause mania  ­­­­Black Bile: cause melancholia/removal of blood Avicenna: prince and chief of physicians, 2  teacher after Aristotle Cannon of Medicine: depress. from mix of humors, physical diseases were from emo distress, + to music and  emo distress View of abnormality in Middle Ages and Renaissance Mass hysteria: people convinced they were possessed by demons ­­Emotional Contagion: auto mimicry of expressions, vocalizations, postures, and movements Enlightenment: how to treat mental illness, religion would help mental ill Philippe Pinel: illness is curable, calm and order w/in his asylums, removed restraints and had daytime  activities for patients Dorothea Dix: moral treatment in US, 32 asylums, treatment, research, education of illness Mesmer: animal magnetism: flow in body freely but when obstructed disease occurred Placebo effect: symptoms gone becuz of specific treatment Kraeplin: scientific method to look at illness, devel. Etiology and prognosis ­­dementia praecox: schizophrenia, autointoxication: body poisoned itself Josef Breuer: study hypnotism on hysteria, Anna O. w/ conversion discussed experience, treatment called  talking cure Psychoanalysis: both normal and abnorm behav, first 5 yrs. of life ­­Id: seeking pleasure/sexual desires, unconscious ­­Ego: balance out super & id, conscious and unconscious ­­Superego: moral compass, partly conscious/unconscious, manages id’s impulses Defense Mechanisms: denial: acting as if it doesn’t exist  Displacement: taking out anger on a target  Intellectualization: avoiding emotions to focus on intel. aspects of event  Projection: your impulses on someone else  Rationalization: using possible info for behavior than real reason  Reaction formation: taking opp. belief if true one causes anxiety  Regression: returning to early devel. stage  Repression: forgetting a conscious thought Sublimation: acting out impulses in an acceptable way  Suppression: pushing unwanted thoughts to unconscious  Undoing: try to take back bad behavior Insight: ­­free association: person tells analyst everything that comes to mind, drawing info from unconscious conflicts ­­dream analysis: individ. Are encouraged to recall their dreams and discuss analytically “royal road to the  unconscious,” symbolic images, meaning of conflict ­­interpretation: focus on present issues and conclude person’s past and present, dreams/fantasies are looked at Modern psychoanalysis: no more id, Alder: sibling rivalry, birth order, inferiority complex, family issues ­­Ego Psychology: conscious motivation and healthy forms of human func. object relations theory: people’s  emo ties to objects Behaviorism: CC: Watson, Pavlov//OC: Skinner Classical conditioning: ­­US: rat ­­UR: fear ­­CS: rat ­­CR: fear ­­Neu S: BANG  ­­Counter Conditioning: associate fav item w/ fear=learn to love both ­­Systematic Desensitization: treating intense fear, slow introduce fear, and it goes away Operant conditioning: ­­pos reinforcement: add, increase behavior ­­neg reinforcement: remove, increase  behavior ­­pos punishment: add, decrease behavior ­­neg punishment: remove, decrease behavior Social learning theory: Bandura: Modeling/ Observational learning ­we learn from others Vicarious conditioning: the person watches a model, and demonstrates a behavior (learn from parents: do what they do) Biological model: abnormal starts in brain, brain composed of neurotransmitters, people will either have  enough trans, or not enough/too many=abnormal Viral infection theory: prenatal viral infections in mother could cause brain abnormalities Alzheimer’s disease: most common dementia, cognitive decline, memory loss, lang. diff., no care for self,  rd more plaques and tangles=3  ventricle full Biological scarring: years of living with the disorder­­ caused brain changes Behavioral genetics: study heritability in a person’s traits Cognitive model: how you think can influence behav ­­Aaron Beck: neg view on self, world, future=cognitive distortions Humanistic model: people are good and motivated to self­actualize, troubles w/self­image and actual self ­­Carl Rogers: Unconditional positive regard­no matter what patient says you stay positive, client centered  therapy­meeting client’s needs, speaking with them to reach their full potential Sociocultural model: gender+SES+culture=influences type of disorder a person may have Biopsychosocial model: bio­genes, hormones psych­thoughts cognition soc­norms, stress Diathesis­stress model: disorder have bio or psych predisposition (diathesis) that lies dormant until stress  occurs Chapter 2 Respect for persons: people in a study must be able to make decisions about themselves Beneficence: researchers don’t harm/minimize harm Informed consent: what is happening, purpose, procedure, risk/nemesis, and it is voluntary Central nervous system: brain+spinal cord, 100 billion nerve cells Peripheral nervous system: body Neuron: axon, neurotransmitter, synapse Sympathetic: fight or flight Parasympathetic: slows down heart, respiration, returning body to norm state Familial aggregation: examine family members of person with a disorder to see if they are more likely to have  disorder than family//see patters or see sporadic Proband: person w/ disorder in a familial aggregation study Twin studies: identical: mono, fraternal: dizy//helps with environmental factors Descriptive research Case studies: description of person or group, that focuses on the assessment of abnormal behavior or treatment Naturalistic observation: watch, describe behavior//Hawthorne effect: observing changes behavior Surveys/interviews: ask specific questions, large #­sur, small­interview Experiments and random assignment: messing with environment/study, each participant is give equal  probability of being assigned to exper or control Independ Variable: experimenter controls Dependent variables: assessed to see the effect of IV rd Causal inference: correlation between two V can be due to a shared correlation with an unmeasured 3  V Correlations: positive: high score of correlation w/two V negative: low score Correlation is not causation! Cross­sectional: snapshot in time (80s, 90s)  Longitudinal: takes place over time more than twice w/ same people Epidemiological research designs: disease patterns in populations and factors of influence, prevalence: # of  cases of disorder in population, ­­Observational Epi: presence of physical or psychological disorders in population ­­Exper Epi: scientist manipulates exposure to either causal or preventive factors Chapter 3 Clinical assessment: gathering info of person w/enviro make decisions of nature, status, and treatment of psych probs Standardization: assessments results in context w/population Reliability: consistency of a test Validity: whether a test measures what it was intended to measure Screenings: identify psychological probs or predict risk of future Unstructured Interview: clinician decides what questions to ask and how to ask them Structured Interview: clinician asks a standard set of questions, goal of a diagnosis Psychological tests: measure dimensions such as personality characteristics, general psych func, intell, and  behavior Behavioral assessment: learning to understand behavior and functional analysis, identify casual links between  problem behaviors and contextual variables. Self­monitor: patient observes and records their own behavior as it happens Behavioral avoidance: test to assess phobias and avoidance behaviors Psychophysiological assessment: measure brain structure, function, and NS EEG: sensors on skull pick up electrical activity from brain Electrodermal Activity: measures sweat, looks at electrolytes in the sweat of skin Biofeedback: patients learn to modify physical responses such as heart rate, respiration, and body temp Neg to diagnostic systems: labeling, inaccurate assumptions by clinicians, stigma that mental health is bad,  over­medication ­­self­fulfilling prophecy: prediction that causes it to be true Diagnostic and statistical manual (DSM): to diagnose, give treatment plan, see outcome, agreed terms, rule  out physical condition Critiques of the DSM: too many people are disordered, border between diagnoses, disorder and normal,  decisions to include judgements, labels how we interpret Dimensional versus: functioning, supported by high frequency of comorbidity, richer descriptions, more  complex to explain Categorical systems: discrete clinical conditions, easier to understand, requires consensus on boundaries,  subthreshold syndromes Comorbidity: more than one disorder Chapter 4 What is anxiety: worrying, thinking about future, time limited, physical symptoms Panic attacks: intense fear, abrupt onset, expected or unexpected, sweating, shaking, choking Panic disorder: Reoccurring panic attacks in one month Agoraphobia: fear of in public and can’t handle panic attack, situation has fear w/it, 6+ mth Generalized anxiety disorder: excessive worry, difficult to control, distress&dysf, 6+ mth Social anxiety disorder: situational fear to scrutiny by others, out of proportion, 6+mth Specific phobia: fear to object situation, actively avoided, out of proportion, 6+mth Obsessive­compulsive disorder: obsession is thought, compulsion is acting on it, time consuming 1+ hr, PTSD: exposure to death, injury, sexual violence, memories, dreams, flashbacks, avoid stimuli with event, neg  effect on mood, 1 mth. Separation anxiety disorder: lots of fear with Sep., worry, distress, won’t leave them, nightmares of sep,  4week in child, 6+mth in adult Body dysmorphic disorder: defects or flaws, repetitive behaviors to check, distress, not concerned with  weight, Heritability of anxiety disorders: between siblings and parent child, Trait Anxiety: high are more reactive to stressful events, and develop a disorder Temperament: personality components are biological or genetic, from birth are stable across time and  situations Brain differences OCD­PTSD: trauma changes amygdala=emo, impulse control and habits has a different  blood flow in brain Anxiety and Neurotran: Nor=too much, Sera=too little, Dope=too little? GABA: affects post­synaptic activity, restricting prevents anxiety Cortisol: produced by adrenal glands, causes stress in body Evolutionary explanations for phobias: human­phobic objects­snakes, heights, closed spaces darkness. Non­ phobic­fish, low places, open spaces, bright light. Dangerous­non­guns, electricity, cars Psychoanalytic viewpoint for anxiety: conflict in id and ego, sexual an aggressive impulses, defense  mechanisms Behaviorist explanations Classical Conditioning: us­trauma, ur­fear, cs­setting of trauma, cr­fear involuntary Operant conditioning: negative reinforcement, changing thinking to develop anxiety Vicarious learning: watch others who are anxious can increase you anxiety Cognitive viewpoint: one is hypersensitive to bodily sensations, fear of fear model, distorted cognitions or  faulty beliefs Fear of fear model: fear of the fear reoccurring again Distorted cognitions: thinking the fear is way out of proportion Biological treatment: SSRIs­selective reuptake inhibitors for depletion of serotonin, Prozac, Lucox,  Zoloft//Benzodiazepines for GABA which reduces anxiety, Valium and Xanax addictive Psychodynamic treatment: uses free association and dream interpretation, finding the underlying problem, IPT good for anxiety disorders to talk about it Behavioral treatments: Exposure­facing fears//Systematic­picture to toy to real thing//Social Skills­observe  other people in situation w/fear Cognitive behavioral therapy: exposure in combo with cognitive restructuring, hypothesis testing generate  positive coping cognitions to counteract the negative thoughts, relaxation training and biofeedback Chapter 5 Somatoform disorders: one or more somatic symptoms plus abnormal/excessive thoughts, feeling, and  behaviors regarding the symptoms Conversion disorder: 1+ altered voluntary motor, or sensory func, Illness anxiety disorder: fears about having an illness that persist despite medical reassurance, lots of anxiety,  comorbid with anxiety, avoid hospital, no symptoms present, 6mth Transient hypochondriasis: due to environment, temporary comorbidity not as common Factitious disorder self: signs and symptoms intentionally produced, eager for medical attention, no external  awards Factitious disorder others: signs and symptoms intentionally produced on another, presents another as ill, no  external reward Developmental considerations: minor health complaints are normal for young children, reinforcement of  complaints can perpetuate and mimicry of symptoms Malingering: not a disorder, lying to get what they want physical/psych healthy, external rewards, deliberate,  get what they want symptom gone Psychodynamic viewpoint: intrapsychic conflict and defense mechanisms, neg feelings become physical  symptoms, factitious­mastery or control, masochism, deprived childhood, be an abuser after being abused Behaviorist viewpoint: encouraged health concerns, reinforcement for being ill, modeling is reinforced Cognitive viewpoint: form of communication, for people to express difficult emo, emotions converted to  physical symptoms Somatic amplification: increased awareness of somatic symptoms, perceive normal body and organ sensations  as being intense, or disturbing Dissociative disorders: disruption in the usually integrated functions of consciousness, memory, identity, or  perception of the environment ­­Depersonalization: feeling of detachment from one’s body, watching your life as someone else, feel detached ­­Derealization: feeling of unfamiliarity or unreality about the environment, in a dream, conscious ­­amnesia: physical trauma­stroke, low blood sugar, booze blackout, hit to the head ­­identity confusion: confusion about who a person is ­­identity alteration: being markedly different from another part of oneself Dissociative amnesia: psychological trauma ­­­­localized: a certain time period you cannot remember ­­­­selective: remember most of life except for the trauma ­­­­generalized: can’t remember anything at all, identity/life history Dissociative amnesia with fugue: loss of personal identity and memory, often involving a flight from their life, sense of self gone, can func normally Depersonalization Disorder: both depreson and derealization Dissociative identity disorder: presence within a person of two+ personality states, their own things, alters,  amnesia between alters Psychosocial: childhood sexual abuse, repressed/recovered memories Recovered/repressed childhood memories: repressed mem are not inherently unreliable, memories recalled in the context of therapy Treatment of dissociative disorders: dissociative amnesia resolves itself, antidepressants for dereal and DID,  CBT used to work with symptoms of physical distress, CBT used to restructure thoughts and other sources for  where memory loss started


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

0 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.