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Unit 5 Notes

by: Camila Correia

Unit 5 Notes ANTH 1000

Camila Correia

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Notes on unit 5 slides
Introduction to Anthropology
Joanne Phipps
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Camila Correia on Friday February 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 1000 at East Carolina University taught by Joanne Phipps in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at East Carolina University.

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Date Created: 02/19/16
Systema Naturae - Carolus Linnaeus -categories based on internal and external visual similarities -Species, Genus, Family, Order, Class, Phylum, Kingdom The Young Earth -Archbishop James Ussher -1650: Calculated that the earth was created on Sunday, Oct 23, 4004 BC (~6000 yrs old) Theory of Deep Time -The earth is extremely old (developed and changed via natural processes) -Basis for Charles Lyell's theory of uniformitarianism (geologic processes is the same as it was in the past as it is in the present) -Gradualist model of change Jean Baptiste Lamarck -Saw that environmental change lead to biological change -Changes with each generation inherited -Example: giraffe's necks grew in order to get food from high trees Charles Darwin -Similarities between Galapagos and mainland animals -Noted differences between animals on each island -Example: different species of birds, reptiles, mammals etc. were different from other islands because of environmental differences -Darwin's Finches; beak differences based on food preferences (leaves, seeds, buds/fruit, insects, grubs) and tool-using finches -Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection -Primary mechanism of change -External and gradual -Three main principles: 1 Variation within species 2 Hereditability of Traits 3 Differential reproductive success Types of Natural Selection -Directional Natural Selection (operates in response to environmental change) -Stabilizing Natural Selection (pressures that keep the population in check with stable environment) Gregor Mendel and Heredity -Identified dominant and recessive traits -Traits are not blended, but they function as pairs Phenotype = observable expression of genotype Genotype = genetic makeup of species, total of all genes Homozygous = individual with matching genes for a trait (AA, aa) Heterozygous = individual with non-matching genes (Aa) Mutations = changes in DNA sequence Alleles = gene variation based on location on chromosome (creates phenotypic differences) The Modern Synthesis -Combination of natural selection and inheritable traits -Mutations (increases variation; adaptive ones may lead to evolution) -Distribution of genetic variation -Genetic Drift -Gene Flow (movement of traits among populations by migrating individuals; can increase variation in a population; can decrease genetic diversity among population; can prevent speciation) Speciation (development of new species; changes to both physical and behavioral traits) Human Variation and Adaption -Mutations ultimate source of all genetic variation -Genotype + environment = phenotype -Acclimatization (individual-based physiological adjustments to an environment) -Culture as an environment Physical Variations Among Populations -Body Build (Bergmann's rule, Allen's rule) Altitude Acclimatization -Hypoxia -Physiological changes (larger chests, increased lung capacity, not genetic) -Skin color(the greater the distance from the equator, the lighter the skin tone; developed more sweat glands and grew less body hair) -Ethnicity (a population of people that share a common history, cultural values, language, homeland [ancestral r contemporary]) Ethnic Identity -Different ethnic groups respond to outside pressures in different ways Assimilation (occurs when one ethnic group dominates another in terms of power, influence, and size) Plural Society (each ethnic group remains very distinct and creates its own economic system, limiting interaction) Ethnicities assumed to have a biological basic Social Construct Biological Race (a population with more genetic variation between it and another population of the same species than within its own) Culture As Adaptive Pressure -Chinese Foot Binding -started among wealthy families during Southern Tang dynasty (618-906 AD) -symbol of freedom from need to work -in 1600's, practice became widespread among Han girls -Banned by Communist party in 1949 -Status (culturally, an individual's status defines social and behavioral roles) -Differences in status often results in differences in access to resources -Social Stratification -Ascribed Status(one that you are born with; ex: Queen Elizabeth III) -Achieved Status(obtained through accomplishments made during our lifetime) The Caste System of India -Consists of our hierarchical social classes called Varnas -Brahmins (priests) -Ksaitryas (warriors) -Vaisyas (merchants) -Sudras (laborers) -Each varna divided into subgroups based on occupation (Jati) -Caste system is a closed social system -born into a caste (ascribed) -must marry someone of the same Jati (achieved)


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