Social Psychology Week of Notes
Social Psychology Week of Notes Psy 4043 ( Social Psychology, Dr. Ilan Shrira)
Arkansas Tech University
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Krista Lindenberg on Friday February 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psy 4043 ( Social Psychology, Dr. Ilan Shrira) at Arkansas Tech University taught by Dr. Ilan Shrira in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Behavioral Sciences at Arkansas Tech University.
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Date Created: 02/19/16
Social Psychology Monday, February 15, 2016 Emotions and Affect (chapter 6. Continued) I. Predicting our emotional behavior II. Anger Hot-cold empathy gap Understanding the influence of “hot” emotional states o We’re not good at empathizing with the other side when we’re in that emotional opposite state; hard to bridge the gap Difficulty empathizing with others’ hot states o E.g., pain; bereavement Doctor who doesn’t understand extremity of pain and doesn’t prescribe very strong pain pills Boss who doesn’t fully understand hot emotional state of sudden loss of loved one Perceptions when hungry/thirsty o Not good at understanding how our future selves can handle and deal Going shopping when hungry Predicting how well you would handle getting stranded in the desert for six hours without water before and after running three miles with no water. Voluntary manslaughter vs. murder o Murder cold & calculated; clear state of mind o Voluntary manslaughter hot anger; heat of the moment, passion of the crime Empathy striking from professionals (e.g. how would you feel coming home to your partner in bed with a stranger? Surely, you too, a calm and rational human being, would be motivated to kill, yes? Okay, I’m not a lawyer.) Men predicting how sexually aggressive they’d be o When shown “soft porn” first, men rated their selves higher; in other words, when aroused and in a hot state, men will predict their selves to be more aggressive and more likely to not stop.. Ariely and Loewenstein (2006) (big emotional researcher) o Participants: male undergraduates @ UC Berkley o Keypad to answer questions on a 0-100 scale o Answering with non-dominant hand. o Asked every 2 minutes how sexually aroused are you? o One group masturbated / one group did not. No Possibly Yes o Results o Stronger motivation/energy less concern over consequences of behavior Hot cold empathy gap o Predicting future abstinence o How to exert self-control when motivation to do something is strong? Human nature to not control ourselves in these hot states Solution: don’t put yourself in situations where these states can happen o Inconsistent effects of alcohol o Increased vs. decreased sexual arousal o Alcohol expectancy - people expect alcohol to do certain things If you expect it to happen, it’s more likely to happen Self-fulfilling prophecy o People expect alcohol to enhance sexual feelings and behavior. o Physical (pharmacological) vs. psychological (expectancy) effect o Without expectation, alcohol decreases physical sexual arousal. Reverse expectation overcomes physical effects o How to test alcohol expectancy o Make people drink placebo without telling them it’s not alcohol Three groups Alcohol Placebo Ice water (control) o Does the placebo group act more similar to the alcohol group or the ice water group? o Placebo group reports and experiences greater arousal vs control group Only works for believers (those with expectations) Same with sexual arousal o Expectancy vs. Myopia (not really related to each other) o Alcohol expectancy explains increased sexual reactions o Alcohol myopia explains aggression and risk taking Wednesday, Feb 17, 2016 Two Sides of Anger (anger from both perspectives) “Describe an incident in which you angered someone else” (you were the instigator) AND “Describe an incident in which someone angered you.” (You were the victim) o Different Perspectives o Seeing behavior as reasonable vs incomprehensible Was there really a good reason for the instigator to act that way? o Isolated incident vs. multiple incident Vitim sees a longer time lapse of these issues. The problem lingers and gradually grows. Instigator doesn’t see long term events leading up to their instigation (closed event) o Question to ask: are we talking about just this or patterns from my past too? o Initially restraining your anger can confuse the other person when it is expressed later Angry episodes can come from buildup of repressed anger Let the person know if there’s a pattern you don’t like so they are not surprised when you eventually lose your temper o Alcohol Intoxication o Inconsistent effects across culture o Can Increase aggressiveness Can Increase altruism (prosocial) In some cases people who are drunk will help more than people who are sober. o Can Decrease anxiety Can increase anxiety People more likely to choke under pressure o Increases sexual arousal Decreases sexual arousal (alcohol is a depressant) o What Alcohol consistently does o Decrease cognitive capacity Alcohol myopia – a narrow focus on the most prominent cues in the situation Tunnel vision; must completely focus on one thing; magnifies most immediate stimulus and consumes all your attention o Also, alcohol decreases your inhibition Alcohol disinhibits behavior; you do and say what you want During conflicts, drunk people perceive more negativity and are more likely to be aggressive. All attention gets focused on negative feelings from conflict and drunk people are more likely to act on those feelings from disinhibition. Friday, February 19, 2016 Chapter 6 continued 1. Marital Satisfaction after time 2. Marriage and happiness a. Happiness declines after first 5-10 years. Marital Status and unhappiness Married people are happier than unmarried people It’s hard to maintain this peak though Adaption David Myers – “Without minimizing catastrophe, the consistent and astonishing result is that the worst emotional consequences of bad events are usually temporary. With major setbacks or injuries, the emotional after- effects may linger a year or more. Yet within a matter of weeks, one’s current mood is more affected by the day’s events than by the catastrophe itself.” Wellbeing/happiness is fairly stable Set point ( stays within a range) Partially determined by genes and personality We adapt to events quicker than we think Return to set point People adapt to positive event of wedding then return to set point After marriage, widowing and divorce, people always adapt and return to set point. Scientifically, it gets better. We might not ever fully adapt, but we can get pretty damn close. There’s probably a reason we don’t fully adapt to negative events… So, why are married people happier? People who are happier (to begin with) are more likely to stay married Other challenges to well-being We don’t cope well with Lack of personal freedom Mental illness Chronic pain Predictors of happiness Strong predictors Higher self-esteem (*internal) Feelings of control, extraversion Close relationships (*external) Engaging work and hobbies Religious faith Sleep and exercise Weak predictors Age Gender Education Physical attractiveness
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