IS 2054 Neorealism & Liberalism Notes
IS 2054 Neorealism & Liberalism Notes IS 2054
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by windwalkerr on Friday February 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to IS 2054 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Courtney Thomas in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Intro to World Politics in International Studies at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
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Date Created: 02/19/16
Neorealism 2.17.16 Liberalism 2.19.16 Neorealism Kenneth Waltz: Theory of International Politics o Structural approach to international relations, which is based upon notion of polarity, balance of power, & polar powers o Closely related to Great Powers & Super powers o Neorealism identifies more agents, structures, & dynamics as “irrelevant” than classical realism does. It defines power as the combined capabilities of state Power determines policy Waltz goes out on a limb and says that no one cares about countries like Namibia, or Peru. People only care about super powers and great powers, both of which fall under polar powers. Great power: power that it has is economic, military, diplomatic, political, and possibly cultural too. These powers are significant enough to shape international system and be active in it. Super power: military capacity to completely destroy its enemies. Structure of international system is based on how many polar powers there are. Structure of international system changes very slowly & infrequently, often due to some cataclysmic event. Structures change only with the addition or elimination of polar powers. Waltz’s theory originates with the events of 1648, such as the creation of modern state system (Treaties of Westphalia). 1648 – 1815. If you’re going to have a multipolar system, 5 poles are best bc if there’s war you have a tie breaker. One power to act as balancer, rest do whatever. 2/2/1 split o From 1648 to the Cold war, the world was multipolar. World is relatively unstable o Great Britain is most important in this system; they became tiebreaker o France, Russia, UK, Prussia, AustriaHungary Defection, alliances, & instability become more limited o 1871: 5 pole system starts to crumble Multipolar system is inherently unstable Best of both worlds: bipolar system. 2 superpowers o MAD o Decreased likelihood of structural change involving polar powers Rather, structural change is deterred through power working together o Worst of all worlds: 3 Tripolar system: 2 against one. 2 that perceive themselves to be weakest will ally against strongest. o Strongest attacks first USSRUSChina? Emergence of great powers again. o Postcold war o Unipolarity Neorealism 2.17.16 Liberalism 2.19.16 Problem with Waltz: We didn’t get out of the cold war bc of MAD, but bc of luck. You can’t base theories off of one instance. You can’t assign structural motivation to states. He lacks imagination. Looks at history and said it couldn’t have happened any other way. Never actually had a tripolar system. Doesn’t account for single people that changed things. Like soviet officers who didn’t fire bc it didn’t make sense. Too reductionist Liberalism 2.19.16 Liberalism can be seen as counterbalance to realism. Problem with realism: Realism’s strength is ability to explain war & conflict o However, realism is too reductionist & cannot explain cooperation, integration, & elements associated w/ globalization Realism stands in the way of interdependence assumptions Foundations of Liberalism: it creates stability & predictability Selfrestraint Compromise Peace o Not just through military strength, but through cooperation Progress Individualism Tolerance Freedom Constitutionalism Selfdetermination o Arguably cornerstone of liberalism o Power of ppl to choose their own gov’ts Possible for everyone to progress along economic & social lines. Power isn’t zerosum game; we can gain together as opposed to the gain of one being bad for another. Liberal Tradition All citizens are equal & possess basic rights to education, access to free press, & religious tolerance o Legislative assembly of state possesses authority invested in it by ppl Key dimension of liberty is right to own property o Enemy of liberalism: mercantilism Liberalism depends on free market and trade State & Individual Neorealism 2.17.16 Liberalism 2.19.16 Like an individual, a state is endowed w/ natural rights o Including right to nonintervention/sovereignty Like individuals w/in states, states must submit to rule of law as defined by community of states & enforced by international institutions They are free, but up to a point. They must follow certain guidelines and not harm other states. Liberalists are institutionalists. Functionalism Liberal theory, emerged before WWI o Assumed that world peace would grow naturally out of economic cooperation Free trade stops war “Flag follows trade” The idea is that economic interdependence would become so rewarding that war would become irrelevant to the definition of national self interest Early successes Early institutions such as International Telegraph Union & International Payments Union seemed to validate functionalist assumptions o WWI seen as opportunity to implement functionalist solution to international crisis Wilson’s 14 points & the League of Nations NeoFunctionalism Neofunctionalists understood that for economic interdependence to be fully successful, leading sectors of economic must integrate in ways that require the establishment and legitimacy of supranational governing institutions o Openness must be carefully implemented by states & institutions to prevent outbreak of war o This is foundational logic of European Coal & Steel Community Bind industries so tightly that war wouldn’t be possible **Marshall’s master plan Rather than having France & Germany fight over Alsace Lorraine, they would have to buy and trade to receive resources o Adoption of euro is an example of functionalism **only works if you combine most important sectors, like those that provide materials needed for war. Role of Institutions Liberals of just about any kind point to the important of international institutions to promote peace & cooperation by creating trust & accountability o UN o Bretton Woods o Int Criminal Court o NATO Neorealism 2.17.16 Liberalism 2.19.16 o EU o MERCOSUR o AU Strengths of liberalism Considers more structures & agents than realism (more complex but often more reflective of pol dynamics) Can explain cooperation, globalization & emergence of NGOs Weaknesses of Liberalism Doesn’t explain the frequent occurrences of war, defection, aggression, & other “realist” qualities in modern world Often more concerned with what could be than what is o Whereas Waltz focused too much on the past and couldn’t really predict the future or offer solutions Requires trust among many states in the international system to function States that adhere to liberal traditions are vulnerable to defection **if a state were to defect in a liberalist world, they would have a huge advantage. More so than in a realist world, because here everyone would expect others to cooperate. Neoliberalism: Economic & political theory Chicago school of economics (1900s) o Privatization o Deregulation o Unhindered trade **if you see these 3 traits, you know they’re talking about neoliberalism. Markets shouldn’t be regulated Neither should trade Services should be privatized in market rather than provided as public goods **creates fundamental problems in the international system Banana republic: country that has one specific good, like banana o Land owned by foreign corporations o Sovereign or no?
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