Week #6 Art History
Week #6 Art History ART 1906
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katie Warren on Friday February 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ART 1906 at East Carolina University taught by Michael Duffy in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Art History Survey 1 in Art History at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 02/19/16
NOTE FOR READER: For notes in this class I will give the full name of the painting or piece of art so that you can either look them up in your book or hopefully online if you do not have a book. Hope this makes it easier to study! Art History Test #2 Notes Week 6 2/15/16 Ancient Greece Map on page 103 (Map 51) is where the chapter focuses. METROPOLITAN KOUROS: 600590 BC Pg. 114 (Figure 518) Mostly statues were made in this time period and not little figurines. They made male and female figures. Similar to Egyptian statues. Abstract representation of the body and emphasizes the block/column and other differences in Greeks work such as it being free standing and not attached to a column. The figure seems to be walking forward and taking a step. Another difference from the Egyptians is that he is nude which shows they are they are interested in the human body. Male figure nude but female has to be clothes as rules maybe? The face and head is inscribed/carved also. Large eyes and abstract face like look with oval face and huge eyes. Small mouth that is slightly animated. Figures could be commemorative or used in funerary markers for graves. Could be used as a statue in a sort of games arena too. Kore or kore: woman Kouros or koure: male BERLIN KORE: 570560 BCE Pg. 115 (Figure 519) The thick robe she is wearing was used for special occasions. The figure holds something similar to a fruit, could refer to the spring. Fruit could be a sacred symbols in Greek society and pomegranate could symbolize Persephone Greek goddess of youth. The face is animated and arms are fleshy and heavily clothed. Could be a grave marker and made of marble in this figure, but others sometimes of limestone. Red paint is on this statue and it had a high clay count. Could hold gold leaf and dress could have been yielded. ANAVYSOS KOUROS: 530 BCE Pg. 116 is the picture. Info is on page 115 (Figure 520) As time goes by the figures are more muscular and curvy ideas of the body. . Hair is becoming more realistic and using a drill for details. The face is more proportionate. Archaic smile is used which is a smile spread out on the smile and making it wider raises the cheeks and makes it look more realistic. Arms close to body and still one step moving forward. This was a grave marker. Not an exact reconstruction but understanding it is a representation of the person who was buried there. “PEPLOS” KORE: 530 BCE Figure on page 116, info on page 115 (Figure 521) This is a votive figure and was used to make gods look at family. The drapery in this figure looks soft and the body is rounder. This is still an idea of the block body idea and there are many cases of limbs falling off. The face looks more and more natural as time goes on. This figure was gilded/painted before. Some of these figures were found on sacred roads or at sanctuaries. Most were found in the ground because earthquakes got them. Bronze works have been found in the water and seas and have been changed by the elements. Peplos (name of statue) is a special dress and usually worn in special occasion times SOME STANDARD SHAPES OF GREEK VESSELS Pg. 117 (Figure 522) Olpe is a pitcher Krater is a mixing jar Calyk krater is referring to flower Kylix and kantharos are cups usually festive occasions Amasis Painter DIONYSOS WITHMAENADS: 540 BCE Pg. 117 (Figure 523) Wine god named Dionysos is in this picture with 2 female worshipers. The ceramic is similar to the amphora pot at the opening of this chapter. There is a rabbit and deer being offered to Dionysos. They seem to be joyful. The god is an opposing figure and holding a cup kantharos. There are swirls on this vessel and the Greeks paint all part of the vessels. There are also meanders painted which are like mazes which are used as space takers on ceramics also. Another decoration used would be rosettes too. The black figure technique came from Corinth, from eastern Greeks and Athens. Lysippides Painter HERAKLES DRIVING A BULL TO SACRIFICE: 525520 BCE Pg. 118 (Figure 524) Slip which is clay mixed with water, and sometimes with iron and manganese, is painted over a turned vessel. Sometimes this would be rich in a certain mineral and the viewer could distinguish the two figures. This was the system: After firing the pot once the painted slip would turn red and then they would take some air out and do a reduction so that everything turns back and the temperature would be raised. This was the phase that the slip is hardened and shined. They would then they bring lots of oxygen back in the kiln and vessel turns back red, but the slip would stay darker. So these darker spots can be carved into and changed with incising details by scratching with a sharp object. This is an image of Hercules and he has a lot of details added through incising details and some red added paint added in on top of the slip. Andokides Painter HERAKLES DRIVING A BULL TO SACRIFICE: 525520 BCE Pg. 118 (Figure 525) Reverse of the other vessel was done to make the red drawing. This light drawing needed more control of the kiln work. They did more drawing on the vessel and they used different washes, or earth tones that were iron rich. On this figure there are fine painted details and this gives the idea that the figure is moving back and shows twisting limbs. Actions of these figures were perfected to show great details and make them look realistic. A CLOSER LOOK: The Death of Sarpedon by Euphronios (painter) and Euxitheos (potter): 515 BCE Pg. 119 Red figures are done very well in this pottery piece. Euphronios signed this piece of work. This is from the Iliad and is one of Homers famous poetry works. His mortal woman friend was killed by Patroclus who was a young warrior. The viewer can tell the warrior in this work is wounded because red is coming from his body. He is being carried away to the afterlife by two people called sleep and death who were minor gods: Hypnos (sleep) and Thanatos (death). The afterlife was thought to be a field and meadows where people could move freely. Hermes is at the top of this and he has a staff with serpents. Hermes is wearing winged head gear which is a symbol of him, this shows that he is a messenger god. Details of body show that Hermes is about to turn and foreshortening is used for the first time. KRITIOS BOY: 475 BCE Pg. 121 (Figure 526) This figure is a representation of a Greek potter. This is a potter from the end of archaic period and beginning of classical. Into 400s and out of 600s. This figure is from the early classical period. Canon is a system of ideal beauty and the sculptors looked at peoples proportions to get it right and they used individual perfect features and put the features together to make a great figure. o The first ideal is the gods and goddesses. Apollo and Aphrodite (Greeks) or Venus. o There was a new sense of calmness and reflectiveness on the figures. Turning in space, proportions, more natural weight shift and the Greeks could show the natural figure in motion. The figures body has a soft muscle structure and head is turned slightly. Contrapposto: presenting standing figures in a tense or relaxed state around their demeanor and this made the figures look even more realistic. 480450 The Early Classical: great poetry and drama were being made 450400 The High Classical period: period of artist refinement and excellent products 400330 The Late Classical Period: time of oppression and rebellion and also Athens kept its artistic and intellectual reputation Foundry painter A BRONZE FOUNDRY: 490480 BCE Pg. 121 (Figure 527) Made of clay and sand then covered with bronze. Made through replacement process by the lotswax casting method (described on page 36 in the book) They used hammers in this type of artwork and to get the finished statue seat the work was filled down after the lostwax casting method. CHARIOTEER: 470 BCE Pg. 122 (figure 528) This is a victor from the Pythian Games. Made of bronze and this was found with other objects including remnants of a bronze chariot and pieces of horses. The figure has copper eyelashes and is wearing a long dress which was probably clothes contestants wore. The dress was made of soft materials probably so that it was easy to move in. The figures head is very naturally done and the ribbon around the hair is very detailed. This is a very classical face, straight nose and round chin and tapering of lips. Feet are well made. Details, arch, toes, nails and everything were well done, and historians think this could have been a mold taken from a human body. Even though this was probably not true and they probably carved out the wax itself or lost wax casting, the Greeks had a great representation of the human body. Types of statue molding: Lost wax and sand casting Bronze allowed the sculptor to manipulate the figures more easily. This could not be done with marble and it was hard to keep arms attached. WARRIOR: 460450 BCE Pg. 123 (Figure 529) Contrapposto is well represented in this figure. Feet and arm are compared and more movement is in this than in the previous works. In the accessories the eyes are made of bone and colored glass for the figures irises. Silver plating on teeth and he had attached eyebrows that were sautered on or fused when chased (finished up/smoothed over) RECONSTRUCTION DRAWING OF THE TOMB OF THE DIVER, POSEIDONIA (ROMAN PAESTUM): 480 BCE. Pg. 124 (Figure 530) Stone slabs were painted on. A young man seems to be diving into water or the underworld. Could have been a celebration of someone moving on to the afterlife. A SYMPOSIOUM SCENE: 480 BCE Pg. 125 (Figure 5 31) Older and younger men are paired up and they are drinking, talking and just sitting around. The man standing on the left is probably toasting someone who was departed. Other men are looking in different directions. Male bonding was happening here. Symposium could have been a funeral ritual, commemoration of great event, men going off to battle or a coming of age. This was well preserved piece of art and history. Douris FROLICKING SATYRS: 480 BCE Pg. 126 (Figure 533) The men are drinking and frolicking around. There was a ripple effect and on the vessel the people seem to move. This could have been for when the people drinking out of it were drunk to make the art look more in motion. Douris A YOUTH POURING WINE INTO A KYLIX OF A COMPANION: 480 BCE Pg. 127 (Figure 534) This is an image of Zeus and the young prince Ganymede on the side of the art piece. These ceramics were filled with wine and the figures would move inside of the oinochoe. The wine that was drank from this ceramic piece was strong from pine trees. The Greeks would be mixed it with water in the oinochoe. 2/17/16 Ancient Greece High Classical Period: a quest for grandeur and perfection in the senses c. 450400 BCE Athens will mostly be discussed in this section of the notes: THE AKROPOLIS ATHENS: 447432 BCE Pg. 128 (Figure 535) There were precessions or religious ceremonies. This period was when the Persians and Greeks were fighting a crazy battle and all the structures were destroyed. Perikles wanted to rebuild it and it was 23 thousand tons of white marble from very far away. Imported gold and ivory, and exotic woods were also used in the reconstruction. For Greeks this was a great alliance time in Sparta and Athens! Sparta built their land power. Athens had their power by sea. These were famous wars that were fought during this time period. There was a Propylaia entrance and even a library in this building and a picture gallery (public art museum). The temple was for Athena Nike goddess of the city. Pheidias was a common sculptor of this time. Erechtheion is the temple that was dedicated to multiple dieties. The Parthenon was part of this whole city on top of the hill Kallikrates and Iktinos VIEW (A) AND PLAN (B) OF THE PARTHENON: 447432 BCE Pg. (Figure 536a) There was a back room that held a lot of riches. This is a temple to Athena Parthenos and she was considered a virgin and victor in war. Human senses and details of the human body were used to make a perfect building. They started off with perfect measurements and then they tweaked it until the measurements were not perfect but it looked more perfect. o They wanted harmonious proportion with front and sides length. 1:2 proportion: perfect rectangle but changed to 4:9 or so for front to sides because it looked better. o The width of the columns was 4:9 spaced also. o The building was made to look like a piece of art. The crafts men even made the floor curved. Entasis means swelling of columns. Kallikrates and Iktinos VIEW (A) AND PLAN (B): 490 BCE Pg. 129 (Figure 536) Temple has valuable objects inside and this was a temple built to Athena. Picture from web: continuous Ionic Frieze PHOTOGRAPHIC MOCKUP OF THE EAST PEDIMENT OF THE PARTHENON (USING PHOTOGRAPHS OF THE EXTANT MARBLE SCULPTURE) 447432 BCE Pg. 130 (figure 537a) Athena was born as an adult and in the sculpture she was just born. But Selene is on one side and is Helios preceding on a horse drawn chariot was on the other. A lot of their gods came from the sea or underworld. Male figure was reclining (Hercules). Or Dionysos is who this figure could be and panther or lion skin is being sat upon. The two figures represent earth goddesses and grain. Demeter and Persephone. Other side of Pendiment: Hestia: Zeus’s sister goddess of heart and home Aphrodite is daughter and there is Dione are clumped together. Peplos (a fine robe) was produced every four years and put on Athena’s statue in the Pediment. LAPITH FIGHTING A CENTAUR 447432 BCE Pg. 131 (figure 538) Two sculpture friezes and mostly on sides of temple not the front There were 92 figures on the temple but many have not survived How do we know there was anything on the walls since some are completely gone? o Ancient writings by Greek writers who described many temple monuments in writings. o People have gone and expected the temple and they know that there was something there at one time. Greeks claimed these Lapiths people as their ancestors. Centaur is trying to get away at this point and there is dramatic tension in this figure. Both were large and strong figures. Ionic frieze means continuing stretch HORSEMAN: 447432 BCE Pg. 132 (Figure 539) These are men walking alongside the horses YOUNG WOMEN AND MEN: 447432 BCE Pg. 132 (Figure 540) The carvings look like columns and have movement represented RECREATION OF PHEIDIAS’ HUGE GOLD AND IVORY FIGURE OF ATHENA: 438 BCE Pg. 133 (Figure 541) Nike would be an announcer and a spokesperson for Zeus. She is sitting in the hands of Athena. This is a recreation of the figure and there is a recreation because of the writings that were done in ancient times since the original had been long gone There is a recreation in Tennessee also, which is about 42 feet high POLYKLEITOS SPEAR BEARER (DORYPHOROS): 450440 BCE Pg. 134 (figure 542) Developed as a famous cannon for developing an ideal figure. And made a bronze statue with this system also The statues were broken and taken so then there were marble figures made from the description to replace the bronze ones. Ideal body is proportionally and symmetrically perfect. MONUMENTAL ENTRANCE TO THE AKROPOLIS, ATHENS: 437423 BCE Pg. 135 (Figure 543) ERECHTHEION 430s406 BCE Pg. 136 (Figure 544) Marks spot where Athena was victorious over Poseidon and she gave him an olive tree after. The building has a very high wall and was built on a hill with a steep slope PORCH OF THE MAIDENS (SOUTH PORCH), ERECHTHEION: 420410 BCE Pg. 136 (figure 545) Caryatids are what these column people are called. All the figures were about to walk, great balance was put into the figures. They are facing the opposite angle on either side of the porch. Molding is carved out on the outside of the building NIKE ADJUSTING HER SANDAL: 410405 BCE Pg. 137 (figure 546) Fluid movement, drapery looks wet and clingy but the it is representing was soft and fluid. Her sandals were important since she was a messenger god. RECONSTRUCTION DRAWING OF THE AGORA (MARKET PLACE), ATHENS: 400 BCE pg. 138 (FIGURE 547) The road shown on the figure is the processional way Stoas were on north and south sides which are rows of columns with a roof onto. People would congregate and walk together to these stores. Bouleuterion: large rectangular building that the bull was held and it could hold many people for a competition. Tholos: small round building with columns on the outside and this was where a council would meet and dine and even sleep. Private houses were spread around this area made with terra cotta tiles and women and men would work in them with a kitchen and probably not a bathroom. There was a sewage system that they used to get rid of sewage. They had fountains around here and they also could take water from them. People could stay here for a while and live, it was not just a place of ceremony. Section of city building in the book, streets and roads developed. READ IT ON PAGE 138 Priam painter WOMAN AT A FOUNTAIN HOUSE: 520510 BCE Pg. 139 (figure 548) This is a jug and there is 5 figures on it. 3 female figures filling a hydra and then a figure on left waiting for someone, and on the right who has an empty jar that they are about to fill up. The figures went to the stoa to get water from the wells. GRAVE STELE OF A LITTLE GIRL: 450440 BCE Pg. 140 (figure549) Drapery is clumped up and this is an example of the figure standing still and the girl is being remembered or commemorated. She is holding two birds, kissing the beak of the bird. GRAVE STELE OF KTESILAOS AND THEANO: 400 BCE Pg. (FIGURE 550) One person had died and they were probably the spouse and the other was still alive. These could be representational figures or real people, some seemed to be engaged in a daily activity and some saying goodbye. In this specific image these were probably partners and they were reflecting on personal intimacy NOT IN BOOK: Athenian agora, Painted Portico, North Side Stoa Ca. 450s BCE Painter is from thesis and he was a great painter from this period. 4 or 5 of his paintings were in the stoa A Stoa is usually considered a down town for Athens. Style of Achilles painter WOMAN AND MAID: 450440 BCE Pg. 141 (figure 551) This is a white ground and has a slip of clay and fired and then painted and fired again and then coated a little more with paint that was not fired. In this piece of art there was a picture of the person who works in the house then a patron who lives here. There was also a stool that would be accompanies with a chest to look at valuable objects. The people are reflecting on their lives and this work was done for a family that this woman had dies. Usually these things were used in ceremonies and contained oil.
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