Fabian PSYC 1000: 15-19 Feb Notes
Fabian PSYC 1000: 15-19 Feb Notes PSYC 1010
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayden McKenzie on Friday February 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1010 at Tulane University taught by Melinda Fabian in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 02/19/16
CH 5: Developing Through Life Span Major Issues of Developmental Psych Nature and nurture – how do our inherent traits interact with our experiences Continuity and stages – what parts of development happen abruptly vs. which parts happen over time Stability and change – which traits are stable through our whole life and which are not Widest smilers in yearbooks – most likely to enjoy enduring marriages Prenatal Development Zygote – conception to implantation (10 days – 2 weeks) Embryo – weeks 3-8 (organogenesis completed by 8 weeks) Fetus – week 9 until birth Fetal Life Teratogens – substances such as viruses and chemicals that can damage the developing embryo or fetus (alcohol, smoking, drugs, STDs, illnesses) Inborn Skills (Competent Newborn) Reflexes – responses that are inborn and do not have to be learned (rooting reflex, sucking reflex, crying) Habituation – a way to ask infants what they see and remember, your brain shifting attention away from things you do not need to notice, unconscious, “getting used to it” (babies became bored with red triangle then got excited when they saw a yellow triangle; confirms that babies can see color) Babies have an inherently strong attraction to human faces Newborns can distinguish their own mother’s smell Infancy and Childhood Maturation – referring to biologically-driven growth In general, sequence of motor development is universal Brain cortex overproduces neurons, connections among neurons proliferate, pruning process eliminates unused connections Cognitive Development Cognition – mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating Jean Piaget Cognitive development theory – children are internally motivated to make sense of their experiences, children grow by maturation and learning through interacting with their environments Had a stage theory of cognitive development that it was a discontinuous process Felt that kids in their sensorimotor stage (newborn to 2 years old) did not think abstractly but there was no technology to improve it Now there is evidence that kids can notice violation in physics (gravity) and babies stare longer and with surprise when numbers do not make sense Maturing beyond egocentrism Theory of mind – the ability to understand that others have their own thoughts and perspective Autism spectrum disorders Children with disorders on the autism spectrum have difficulties establishing mutual social interaction, use language and play symbolically, displaying flexibility with routines Have trouble mental mirroring Social development Attachment – emotional tie to a person Origins of attachment – experiments with monkeys suggest that attachment is based on physical affection and comfortable body contact, not being rewarded with food (babies need physical touch) Adolescence Transition period from childhood to adult Puberty – brain stops automatically adding new neural connections and “rewires” to become more efficient (pruning, coating well-used connections in myelin to speed up nerves) Emotional limbic system gets wired for puberty before frontal judgment center of the brain gets wired for adulthood Adolescents may understand risks and consequences but give more weight to potential thrills and rewards Adolescence: Parent and Peer Relationships Peer relationships take center stage during adolescence Adolescents still see parents as primary influence in career, religion, and politics Most parent-adolescent conflict is over minor daily life issues (like cleaning room) Attachment relationship changes but is still needed Well-Being Across Lifespan Life-satisfaction is a pretty stable trait Older people attend less to the negative and more to the positive, more likely to have accumulated many mildly positive memories, increased state of competence and control CH 7: Learning Learning – process of acquiring new and relatively enduring information or behaviors Associative Learning Classical conditioning – learning that two stimuli go together Operant conditioning – behavior and consequence Cognitive learning Mental learning Occurs when observing events and behaviors of others, using language to acquire information (like in class) Behaviorism Watson – proponent of classical conditioning BF Skinner – operant conditioning Mental life less important than behavior Ivan Pavlov Salivation in dogs Before conditioning – neural stimulus (ring a bell, no salivation) unconditioned stimulus and response During conditioning – ringing bell and giving dogs food After conditioning – begin to salivate upon hearing the bell, attracted to sound Acquisition Initial stage of learning/conditioning Association between neural stimulus (NS) and unconditioned stimulus (US) – food is given when bell rings Unconditioned response (UR) gets triggered by CS (conditioned stimulus) – drooling is triggered by bell NS must be before US Extinction Diminishing of a conditioned response If food stops appearing with bell, CR decreases Spontaneous Recovery Return of CR despite lack of further conditioning Generalization and Discrimination Generalization – tendency to have conditioned responses triggered by related stimuli, MORE stuff makes dogs drool (scratching triggered drooling) Discrimination – learned ability to respond only to specific stimuli, LESS stuff makes dogs drool (slightly different pitches did not make dogs drool) Pavlov’s Legacy Insight about conditioning – it occurs in all creatures Studying objectively Idea of triggers John B Watson: Playing with Fear Nine month old not afraid of white rat White rat brought out with scary clanging sound Nine month old then developed fear of rats and other soft and furry things Operant Conditioning Adjusting to the consequences of our behavior so we can learn what works and what doesn’t work Act of chosen behavior (“response”) is followed by a reward or punishment Reinforced behavior is more likely to be tried again; punished behavior is less likely Thorndike’s Law of Effect Puzzle box – cats were rewarded with food if they solved the puzzle Cats took less time to escape after repeated trials Law of effect – behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely and behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely B.F. Skinner Operant Chamber Extended Thorndike’s principles Pioneered more controlled methods of studying conditioning “skinner box” – allowed detailed tracking of rates of behavior change in response to different rates of reinforcement Reinforcement Only feedback from environment that makes a behavior more likely to occur Positive (adding) reinforcement – adding something desirable Negative (taking away) reinforcement – ending something unpleasant, NOT punishment Shaping Behavior When a creature is not likely to randomly perform an exact behavior, you can reward any behavior that is close to the one desired Discrimination Ability to become more and more specific in what situations trigger a response Dogs rats and even spiders can be trained to search for very specific smells from drugs to explosives How Often to Reinforce? Skinner experiments with reinforcements in different patterns or schedules to determine which worked best to establish and maintain a target behavior Continuous reinforcement – reward every time, subject acquires desired behavior quickly, good to establish but not maintain behavior Partial/Intermittent Reinforcement – give rewards part of the time, target behavior takes longer to be established but persists longer without reward, good to maintain but not establish Operant Effect: Punishment Punishments – opposite effect of reinforcement, consequences make target behavior less likely to occur in the future Positive punishment – adding something unpleasant Negative punishment – take away something pleasant
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