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Lab 3

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Frogs & Toads
Laboratory In Ecology And Systematics Of Amphibians, Reptiles, And Birds
Kenneth F. Kellner
Class Notes
Ecology, amphibians, reptiles, forestry, Natural Resources
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This 34 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sierra on Friday February 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FNR 252 at Purdue University taught by Kenneth F. Kellner in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Laboratory In Ecology And Systematics Of Amphibians, Reptiles, And Birds in Agriculture and Forestry at Purdue University.

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Date Created: 02/19/16
FNR252:LaboratoryinEcologyandSystematics ofAmphibians,Reptiles,andBirds LAB 2: ANURA (FROGS AND TOADS) AnuraCharacteristics Distribution ◦ Most widely distributed amphibians ◦ Most require moist or wet habitats Morphology and Physiology ◦ Lack tails as adults ◦ __________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ◦ Most have well developed eyes and ears ◦ Most have distinct voices and vocalization Diet ◦ Carnivorous adults (and many tadpoles) Lifestyle ◦ ___________________________________________ Terminology Metatarsal tubercle - ___________________ ______________________________________ Spade - Enlarged metatarsal tubercle adapted for digging Parotoid gland - Round or roughly oval gland at the back of the head, behind the eye TerminologyContinued Tympanum – The ear opening in reptiles and amphibians Lateral line - System of tactile sense organs unique to aquatic vertebrates Amplexus –________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ EvenMoreT erminology Cranial crest – Elevated ridge-like structure on the skull Toe pads – Enlarged disc-shaped swellings at the base of the toes Dorsolateral ridge –________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ Vocal sac –The calling apparatus on most male frogs FamiliesCovered • Scaphiopodae (genus Scaphiopus) • Bufonidae (genera Anaxyrus) • Hylidae (genera Acris, Hyla, and Pseudacris) • Ranidae (genus Lithobates) Scaphiopodae __________________________ Large tubercle on outside edge of each hind foot Spend most of the year in soil Toad-like body Teeth in upper jaw ___________________________ easternspadefoot (Scaphiopusholbrookii) Diet •Worms and insects Distribution •Southeastern United States Habitat •Areas with sandy or loose soil •_______________________________ Reproduction •Explosive breeders easternspadefootID •____________________________ •Reduced parotoid glands •Yellowish line originates behind each eye and runs down back •Usually an additional line on each side of the body •External eardrum apparent •Skin smooth compared to a toad Bufonidae True toads _____________________________ _____________________________ Short limbs Warty skin Horizontal pupils Many species terrestrial or fossorial Generally lay eggs in paired strings in water Americantoad (Anaxyrusamericanus) Diet • ________________________________________ Distribution • Eastern United States and Canada Habitat • Use a wide variety of habitats • Require moisture and shallow water to breed Reproduction • ________________________________________ • Females lay up to 8,000 eggs AmericantoadID •Two dark, hard tubercles on each hind foot •Elongate parotoid glands and prominent cranial crest •_____________________________ _____________________________ •Chest and anterior abdomen usually spotted •Light mid-dorsal stripe may be present Fowler’ stoad (Anaxyrus fowleri) Diet • Insects and other invertebrates Distribution • Eastern United States Habitat • ________________________________________ ________________________________________ Reproduction • Mates from May-June • Females lay up to 10,000 eggs Fowler’ stoadID _________________________________ •Parotoid glands elongate and touch adjacent cranial crest •Largest dark spots on back contain three or more warts •Chest and abdomen usually unmarked •Light mid-dorsal stripe may be present Hylidae Tree frogs, cricket frogs, and chorus frogs Occur in North America, South America, Europe, Asia, and Australia Toe pads usually present __________________________ northerncricketfrog (Acriscrepitans) Diet • Small aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates Distribution • ________________________________________ Habitat • Open edges of permanent ponds, bogs, lakes, and slow moving streams Reproduction • Mates May-July • Females lay up to 400 eggs singly or in small clusters northerncricketfrogID •_______________________________ •Dark-pigmented triangle or V-shaped mark present between the eyes •Dark stripe on rear of thigh often raggedly-edged •Hind toes extensively webbed with small toe pads easterngraytreefrog Cope’ sgraytreefrog (Hylaversicolor) (Hylachrysoscelis) Diet • Insects and larvae Distribution • ______________________________________ Habitat • Anywhere with suitable breeding ponds adjacent to trees and shrubs Reproduction • Mates April-May • ______________________________________ • 10-40 eggs per cluster graytreefrogID •Highly variable coloration and markings •One or more irregular blotches often visible on the back •Light spot usually present below each eye •Concealed surfaces of hind legs bright orange and mottled with black •___________________________________________ •Skin slightly warty •Large toe pads springpeeper (Pseudacriscrucifer) Diet • Insects and spiders Distribution • Eastern United States and Canada Habitat • Breeds in ponds, ditches, and marshes • ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ Reproduction • Mates March-June • Females lay up to 1,000 eggs singly or in small clusters springpeeperID •________________________________ ________________________________ •Large toe pads •Belly white, yellowish, or creamed color westernchorusfrog (Pseudacristriseriata) Diet • ________________________________________ Distribution • United States and Canada Habitat • Marshes, meadows, swales, and other open areas near water Reproduction • Mates February-April • Females lay up to 1,500 eggs • ________________________________________ westernchorusfrogID •Usually has three dark stripes on the back •Middle stripe often forks into 2 stripes posteriorly •Dark stripe through eye often present •______________________________________ •Small toe pads •Venter is whitish, but a few dark spots may be present on the throat and chest Ranidae True frogs Occur on all continents except Antarctica Diverse family _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ greenfrog (Lithobatesclamitans) Diet • Invertebrates and smaller vertebrates Distribution • Eastern United States and Canada H• Edges of permanent bodies of water R• _________________________________________ • Females lay up to 7,000 eggs • Eggs may be attached to submerged aquatic vegetation greenfrogID •___________________________ ___________________________ •White venter usually with mottling under legs and head •Dorsolateral ridges do not reach groin •Center of tympanum elevated •Usually green on upper lip •Large body Americanbullfrog (Lithobatescatesbeianus) Diet •Anything they can fit in their mouth Distribution •Wide ranging in the United States Habitat •Permanent bodies of water •_______________________________ Reproduction •Mates May-July •_______________________________ •Eggs float on surface of the water AmericanbullfrogID • Green dorsum, sometimes with gray or brown mottling •Whitish venter, often mottled with gray •No dorsolateral ridges •______________________________ ______________________________ •Extensive foot webbing •Sometimes has dark bands on upper legs northernleopardfrog (Lithobatespipiens) Diet •Invertebrates and smaller vertebrates Distribution •Northern United States and Canada Habitat •_______________________________ ________________________________ Reproduction •Mates March-June •Females lay up to 6,500 eggs deposited as globular clusters northernleopardfrogID • Brown or green dorsum •2-3 rows of spots between dorsolateral ridges •_______________________________________ •Numerous spots on sides •Ridges continuous to groin and lighter than dorsum •Light line from nose to shoulder •Often dark spots on snout and above each eye woodfrog (Lithobatessylvaticus) Diet •Insects, worms, and mollusks Distribution •Northern United States and Canada Habitat •Moist woodlands with abundant vernal pools Reproduction •Mates very early spring •___________________________________ •Females lay up to 3,000 eggs woodfrogID •Robber’s mask •__________________________ •Coloration and markings variable •Light stripe on upper jaw •Prominent dorsolateral ridges •Belly white, may have dark mottling •__________________________ minkfrog (Ranaseptentrionalis) Diet • Crayfish, invertebrates, and small fish Distribution • ___________________________________________ Habitat • Cool, permanent water • Lakes, ponds, sluggish streams Reproduction • Mates in May-July • Females lay up to 4,000 eggs • Clusters sink to the substrate to hatch minkfrogID •Large tympanum •Eyes slightly turned upward •Area above upper lip usually green •Dorsolateral ridges variable •Dorsum may be spotted or mottled •__________________________ __________________________


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