Popular in Laboratory In Ecology And Systematics Of Amphibians, Reptiles, And Birds
Popular in Agriculture and Forestry
This 42 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sierra on Friday February 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FNR 252 at Purdue University taught by Kenneth F. Kellner in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Laboratory In Ecology And Systematics Of Amphibians, Reptiles, And Birds in Agriculture and Forestry at Purdue University.
Reviews for Lab 4
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/19/16
FNR252:LaboratoryinEcologyandSystematics ofAmphibians,Reptiles,andBirds LAB 4: CROCODYLIA AND TESTUDINES (CROCODILIANS AND TURTLES) EarlyFeedback • Not enough time for notes • Talk to fast • No time for questions ExtraCreditOpportunity 10 additional extra credit points Pick any herp species not covered in class Send to me two days before day of class Next two weeks of class 1-2 slides 2-3 minutes Natural History and ID characteristics CrocodyliaCharacteristics Distribution ◦ Tropical and subtropical ◦ Southeastern North America, South America, Africa, Asia and Australia Morphology and Physiology ◦ Long, laterally compressed tail ◦ Four-chambered heart ◦ Well-developed limbs ◦ Dorsal and sometimes ventral armor Diet ◦ Carnivores Reproduction ◦ Oviparous ◦ Temperature dependent sex determination T estudinesCharacteristics Distribution ◦ Tropical and temperate regions of the world ◦ Not very cold tolerant Morphology and Physiology ◦ Bony shell with horny shields ◦ Sharp horny beak, no teeth Diet ◦ Most adults omnivorous, some herbivorous ◦ Many young carnivorous Reproduction ◦ Oviparous T estudinesSuborders Pleurodira ◦Fresh water species ◦New Guineaemisphere: South America, Africa, ◦More primitive, less diverse (about 60 sp.) ◦Neck retracted by bending sideways Cryptodira ◦Variable lifestyles ◦All continents except Antarctica (all NA turtles) ◦Less primitive, more diverse (about 200 sp.) ◦Neck retracted straight back Terminology Carapace- Dorsal (upper) part of shell Plastron- Ventral (bottom) part of shell Scutes- Modified scales over carapace and plastron Transverse hinge- Hinge on plastron used to close shell. May be 1 or 2. T ypesofScutes Gular---- Good Humeral---- Herp Pectoral---- Pupils Abdominal---- Attend Femoral--- Friday Lab Anal---- Always! FamiliesCovered ◦Crocodylidae (genus Crocodylus) ◦Alligatoridae (genus Alligator) ◦Chelydridae (genus Chelydra) ◦Kinosternidae (genera Kinosternon and Sternotherus) ◦Emydidae (genera Chrysemys, Clemmys, Emydidea,Graptemys, T errapene, and Trachemys) ◦Trionychidae (Apalone) Crocodylidae Occur worldwide in freshwater and near-shore marine habitats Lingual salt glands Not all mandibular teeth fit in mouth Long, tapering, narrow snout Americancrocodile (Crocodylusactus) Diet •Vertebrates Distribution •United States – Southern Florida Morphology •Males may reach up to 20 feet, females rarely exceed 12 feet Habitat •Fresh water habitats – rivers, lakes, reservoirs •Brackish estuaries and swamps Reproduction •Mating from January – March •30 – 70 eggs laid April - May AmericancrocodileID •Long, narrow snout •Upper jaw larger than lower Alligatoridae Occur in freshwater habitats in North and South America and Asia No lingual salt glands All mandibular teeth fit in mouth Wider jaws and shorter heads Americanalligator (Alligatormississippiensis) Diet •Vertebrates Distribution •Southeastern United States Morphology •Males may reach up to 15 feet, females rarely exceed 10 feet Habitat •Fresh water swamps, lakes, rivers, and marshes Reproduction •Mating from April - May •20 – 50 eggs laid in vegetation covered nests AmericanalligatorID •Adult body black •Young have light barred markings •Broad rounded snout •Upper jaw about the same size as the lower jaw Chelydridae North America, South America, and Asia Large heads and bodies, long tails, and stout limbs Flattened carapace with 3 ridges Reduced plastron Aquatic Carnivorous and nocturnal snappingturtle (Chelydraserpentina) Diet •Generalist Distribution •Eastern United States, Canada, Central and South America Habitat •Fresh water systems including bays, mucky ponds, lakes, and streams Reproduction •Mating from April - November •Females deposit up to 80 eggs snappingturtleID •Massive head, powerful hooked jaws •Small cross shaped plastron •Tail saw-toothed on upper surface and as long as carapace •Young have three prominent ridges on carapace Kinosternidae North and South America Generally small (up to 6 inches) Carnivorous Aquatic bottom walkers Hinged plastrons Barbells on chin and throat easternmudturtle (Kinosternonsubrubrum) Diet •Insects, mollusks, tadpoles, crustaceans Distribution •Southern United States Habitat •Calm, shallow ponds, marshes, and ditches Reproduction •Mating from April - June •Females deposit 2 - 6 eggs easternmudturtleID •Plastron relatively large •2 transverse hinges •Pectoral scute triangular •Carapace smooth, oval, and domed •Head may be spotted, mottled, or streaked with yellow •Short tail •Males blunt spine at tail tip and scaly patches inside hind legs easternmuskturtle (Sternotherusodoratus) Diet •Insects, leeches, snails, crayfish, small fish, and tadpoles Distribution •Eastern United States Habitat •Permanent fresh water with slow current and soft bottom Reproduction •Mating from April – May •Nest May - July •Females deposit 1 - 9 eggs easternmuskturtleID •Plastron relatively small •One transverse hinge •Pectoral scute squarish •Carapace, oval, dome, smooth or with 3 ridges •2 light stripes on head •Short tail •Males tail is longer and stouter with blunt claw-like tip, concave plastron, and scaly patch inside hind leg Emydidae Widespread and dominant in United States North America, South America, Africa, Europe, and Asia Diverse in morphology, natural history, and ecology Most species aquatic or semi-aquatic Basking behavior paintedturtle (Chrysemyspicta) Diet •Aquatic insects, crayfish, mollusks, and algae Distribution •United States and Southern Canada •Most widespread turtle in North America Habitat •Permanent fresh water with slow currents, soft bottoms, and aquatic vegetation Reproduction •Nest May - July •Females deposit 3 - 20 eggs paintedturtleID •Carapace black or olive, oval, smooth, flattened, and unkeeled •Red bars or crescents on marginal scutes •Yellow plastron, no hinges •Yellow and red stripes present on neck, legs, and tail •V-shaped notch flanked by cusps on upper jaw •Females short claws, males long spottedturtle (Clemmysguttata) Diet •Algae, aquatic vegetation, worms, mollusks, crustaceans, and amphibian eggs Distribution •Eastern and Northern Midwest United States and Southern Canada Habitat •Clear, shallow waters with soft bottoms, and aquatic vegetation Reproduction •Nest late May - June •Females deposit 1 - 8 eggs spottedturtleID •Carapace unkeeled and black with yellow spots •Head, back and legs may have yellow or orange spots •Plastron is yellow with black pigment along outer border of scutes •Males eyes brown, thick and long tail, jaws dark •Females eyes orange, thin tail, jaws yellow and unmarked Blanding’ sturtle (EmydIdeablandingii) Diet •Aquatic vegetation, insects, crustaceans, tadpoles, small fishes, and amphibian eggs Distribution •Northern Midwest and Eastern United States and Southern Canada Habitat •Clean, shallow waters with soft bottoms, and aquatic vegetation Reproduction •Mating from April - November •Nest in June •Females deposit 6- 2 1 eggs Blanding’ sturtleID •Light spots on carapace that may run together to form bars or streaks •Bright yellow chin and throat •Plastron has 1 hinge •Plastron yellow with large, black blotch at outer rear edge of scutes •Upper jaw notched in front creating “smile” northernmapturtle (Graptemysgeographica) Diet •Snails, clams, crayfish, and some plants Distribution •Midwestern United States Habitat •Ponds, river, and lakes with abundant vegetation Reproduction •Mate spring and fall in the water •Nest May - July •Females deposit 6 - 20 eggs northernmapturtleID •Carapace moderately low, keel that may have small knobs •Carapace may have map-like series of markings •Serrated rear marginal scutes •Yellow spot behind eye •Unmarked plastron in adults •Head and legs have whorls and wavy lines easternboxturtle (T errapenecarolinacarolina) Diet •Snails, insects, berries, fungi, mushrooms, slugs, and worms Dis•Eastern United States Habitat •Open woodlands, pastures, and marshy meadows Reproduction •Mate spring and fall •Nest June - July •Females deposit 3 - 11 eggs easternboxturtleID •High, domed, slightly keeled carapace •Plastron with broad hinge •Upper jaw with down-turned beak •Four toes per hind foot •Variable markings •Males concave plastron, red eyes, thick curved hind claws, thicker tail, vent beyond edge of carapace •Females flat plastron, brown eyes, thin straight hind claws, thinner tail, vent beneath edge of carapace ornateboxturtle (Terrapeneornataornata) Diet •Beetles, slugs, caterpillars, and grasshoppers Distribution •Central United States Habitat •Sandy areas of plains and prairies dominated by grasses Reproduction •Females deposit 2 - 8 eggs ornateboxturtleID •High, domed, usually no keel •Plastron with broad hinge •Upper jaw with down-turned beak •Four toes per hind foot •Light lines radiate downward on carapace, mid- dorsal yellow stripe often present •Plastron radiating yellow lines on dark background •Sexing same as with eastern box turtle redearedslider (T rachemysscriptaelegans) Diet •Young- carnivorous •Adults- herbivorous Distribution •Central United States Hab•Quiet waters with muddy bottoms and basking sites Reproduction •Mating from March – July •Nest May – July redearedsliderID •Broad, reddish stripe behind eye •Rounded lower jaw •V-shaped notch in upper jaw not flanked by cusps •Oval, olive or brown, carapace with yellow bars, stripes, and eye-spots •Plastron yellowish, often with dark smudge in center of each scute •Head, neck, and legs dark with stripes •Rear, marginal scutes slightly serrated Trionychidae North America, Africa, Asia Leathery skin without scutes Long, tubular, snorkel-like snout on slender head Fully aquatic, good swimmers Pharyngeal respiration spinysoftshell (Apalonespinifera) Diet •Aquatic insects, crayfish, and fish Distribution •Central United States Habitat •Large streams, reservoirs, ponds, and lakes with sandy or muddy bottoms Reproduction •Mate in deep water in late spring •9 – 40 eggs per female spinysoftshellID •Carapace soft, leathery, no scales or scutes, and flattened •Two dark-bordered light stripes on side of head •Feet strongly streaked and spotted •Projections on upper surface of carapace •Dark eye-like spots (males) or brown and olive blotches (female) on carapace
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'