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Lab 5

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Laboratory In Ecology And Systematics Of Amphibians, Reptiles, And Birds
Kenneth F. Kellner
Class Notes
Ecology, amphibians, reptiles, forestry, Natural Resources
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This 44 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sierra on Friday February 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FNR 252 at Purdue University taught by Kenneth F. Kellner in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Laboratory In Ecology And Systematics Of Amphibians, Reptiles, And Birds in Agriculture and Forestry at Purdue University.

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Date Created: 02/19/16
FNR252:LaboratoryinEcologyandSystematics ofAmphibians,Reptiles,andBirds LAB 4: SQUAMATA SUBORDER SERPENTES (SNAKES) SquamataCharacteristics Distribution ◦ Largest extant order of reptiles ◦ Lizards and snakes ◦ All continents except Antarctica Morphology and Physiology ◦ Skins with horny scales or shields ◦ Moveable quadrate bones ◦ Many species with venom Diet ◦ Most carnivorous Reproduction ◦ Males have hemipenes, a bi-lobed reproductive organ ◦ Viviparous , ovoviviparous, and oviparous species ◦ Some species can produce asexually through parthenogenesis SuborderSerpentesCharacteristics Distribution ◦Every continent except Antarctica Morphology and Physiology ◦Limbless ◦2-part tongue ◦No external ear opening ◦Fused eyelids with spectacle ◦Single functional lung Reproduction ◦Most oviparous Terminology Aglyph– Snake with non-specialized teeth. Opisthoglyph– Snake with rear fangs. Lack hollow fangs. Inject venom by grasping and chewing prey. Elongated fangs at front of jaw. Inject venom by striking. Solenoglyph– Snake with hinged fangs. Elongated fangs at front of jaw. Inject venom by striking. TerminologyContinued olfactory sense organ .liary anus. May be divided (double) or single. Loreal pit – Deep depression on either side of the head in pitvipers. Opening to an infrared detecting organ. FamiliesCovered ◦Colubridae (genera Coluber, Pantherophis, Opheodrys, and Pituophis,) ◦Natricidae(genera Nerodia, Regina, Storeria, and Thamnophis) ◦Dipsadidae (Diadophis and Heterodon) ◦Viperidae (genera Agkistrodon, Crotalus, and Sistrurus) Colubridae Occur on all continents except Antarctica Tropical, subtropical, and temperate zones Most of the world’s snakes are colubrids Extremely diverse and polyphyletic blueracer (Coluberconstrictorfoxii) Diet •Small mammals and birds Distribution • Midwestern United States Habitat •Open habitats including hardwood and pine forests, brushy areas, grasslands, and meadows Reproduction •Mate April – June •3 – 32 eggs laid in a concealed nest from June - July •Eggs hatch August – September blueracerID •Large, slender body •Plain blue dorsum •Often a darker area extends posteriorly from eye •Chin and throat are white and non-spotted •Belly white or blue and paler than back •Young with mid-dorsal blotches •Smooth scales •Anal plate divided grayratsnake (Pantherophisspiloides) Diet •Mammals and small birds Distribution •Central and eastern United States Habitat •Variable include wooded or scrub areas, edges of marshes, and around abandoned buildings Reproduction •Mate in April •5 -27 young hatch late summer/early fall •Eggs laid under fallen logs or leaf piles grayratsnakeID •Plain, black, shiny body •Skin between scales may be light •Young have conspicuous dorsal patterns that disappear with age •Belly usually checkerboard-patterned •Chin and throat white or cream •Belly scales are flat in the middle, with turned up ends •Weakly keeled scales •Anal plate divided westernfoxsnake (Pantherophisvulpinus) Diet •Small mammals and birds Distribution •Northern Midwest Habitat •Open grasslands, hedgerows, farm fields, edges of open woods Reproduction •Mate from May-June •7 – 27 eggs laid in July and hatch 60 days later •Eggs laid under logs and leaf litter westernfoxsnakeID •Body yellowish to light brown with bold, dark blotches along the midline •Alternating rows of smaller dark blotches along each side •Head brown to red and often lacking conspicuous markings in adults •In young, dark stripe on each side of the head from the eye to the jaw, with a second dark line from the eye to the mouth •Belly yellow and strongly checkered with black •Weakly keeled scales •Anal plate divided smoothgreensnake (Opheodrysvernalis) Diet •Small invertebrates Distribution •Northeastern North America Habitat •Wet prairies, meadows, marshes, and open woodlands Reproduction •Nest June – August •2 clutches with 4- 6 eggs per clutch smoothgreensnakeID •Slender body with long tapering tail •Plain bright green dorsum •Plain white or yellow venter •Smooth scales •Anal plate divided gophersnake (Pituophiscatenifer) Diet •Small mammals and birds Distribution •Central and western North America Habitat •Dry prairie grasslands Reproduction •Mate June – August •2 – 24 young gophersnakeID •Large, yellowish body with blotches that are darkest at both ends of the snake •Belly yellow with bold, black spots •Dark band usually extends from eye to angle of the jaw with a yellow band just above •Keeled scales •Snout somewhat pointed, with enlarged rostral scale extending upward •Single anal plate Natricidae • Members formerly colubridae • Many species aquatic • Often exhibit strong keeling • Viviparous northernwatersnake (Nerodiasipedon) Diet •Small fish, frogs, crayfish Distribution •Eastern and Central United States and Southern Canada Habitat •Lakes, streams, ponds, bogs, marshes •Hibernate in dens over the winter Reproduction •Mate April – June •Ovoviviparous •4 – 30 young born August - September northernwatersnakeID •30 or more dark reddish brown to black dorsal bands from neck to anus •Light spaces between lateral dark markings usually less than 2.5 scale rows •Background pale gray to dark brown in color •Patterning may darken and become obscure in adults •Keeled scales •Anal plate divided queensnake (Reginaseptemvittata) Diet •Mainly crayfish Distribution •Central United States Habitat •On the edges of shallow, rocky streams, lakes and marshes Reproduction •Ovoviviparous •5-23 young born August – September queensnakeID •Slender brown body with a yellow stripe on the side •Belly yellow with 4 brown stripes •Ventral stripes are prominent toward the neck and run together posteriorly •3 narrow, indistinct dark stripes sometimes visible on back •Keeled scales •Anal plate divided midlandbrownsnake (Storeriadekayiwrightorum) Diet •Earthworms, snails, and slugs Distribution •Central and eastern North America Habitat •Prefers woodland edges with abundant cover objects •Often hibernate in large numbers Reproduction •Ovoviviparous •Breed in spring and fall • 5- 20 young born from July – August midlandbrownsnakeID •Small, brown body with 2 parallel rows of spots on back •Each pair of spots connected by a narrow, dark line •Indistinct, wide, light-colored, stripe running along the dorsal midline •Dark, downward streak present on the side of the head •Belly pale yellow, brown, or pink and unmarked except for small, black dots at the side of each ventral scale •Keeled scales •Anal plate divided easterngartersnake (Thamnophissirtalissirtalis) Diet •Generalist Distribution •Central and Eastern North America Habitat •Variety of habitats •Tend to prefer moist areas near woodlands, marshes, and meadows Reproduction •Viviparous •1 – 100 young, 25 average easterngartersnakeID •3 yellow, blue, green, or brown stripes on a black, dark brown, green, or olive background •Belly greenish or yellowish with 2 rows of indistinct black spots partially hidden beneath overlapping portion of ventral scales •Head and chin lighter than the belly •Keeled scales •Anal plated single Dipsadidae • Members formerly colubridae • Endemic to the new world • Enlarged, grooved teeth northernringnecksnake (Diadophispunctatusedwardsii) Diet •Herps and invertebrates Distribution •Northern Midwestern and Northeastern United States and Southern Canada Habitat •Areas with abundant cover especially woodlands and riparian zones Reproduction •Mate May - September •Nest under rocks, fallen bark, or other cover •Clutches of 1-10 laid in communal nests of up to 50 eggs northernringnecksnakeID •Plain, dark, slender body •Golden collar present •Dorsal color black, gray, or brown •Belly is yellow, orange, or red sometimes with a complete or partial row of small, black dots on the midline •Smooth scales •Anal plate divided easternhognosesnakeID •Stout body usually spotted with squarish dark blotches but may be pale gray or black yellow, gray or pink backgroundsh on a •Underside of tail lighter than belly •Snout upturned, long, and wedge-shaped •Keeled scales •Anal plate divided easternhognosesnake (Heterodonplatirhinos) Diet •Toad specialist Distribution •Central and eastern United States Habitat •Areas with dry, loose soils Reproduction •4-60 eggs laid in mid-summer •Eggs hatch in late summer eastern hognose display Viperidae Distributed throughout North America,, South America, Africa, Europe, and Asia Only the subfamily Crotalinae are present in the United States All are solenoglyphs with hemotoxic venom Usually have triangular heads, heavy bodies, short, slender tails, and keeled dorsal scales What hemotoxin does to blood northerncopperhead (Agkistrodoncontortrixmokasen) Diet •Rodents, small birds, herps, and insects Distribution •Eastern and central United states Habitat •Rocky, forested hillsides and mountainous areas •Hibernates in dens over winter Reproduction •Mate April – May and September - October •Females capable of long-term sperm storage •Ovoviviparous •2 – 10 young northerncopperheadID •Deep loreal pit on each side between eye and nostril •Head wider than neck •Body stout and copper, orange, or pinkish in color •Dorsal markings are chestnut colored and form an hourglass pattern •Small, dark spots often present between crossbands and on sides •Head coppery-red •Scales weakly keeled •Anal plate single westerncottonmouth (Agkistrodonpiscivorusleucostoma) Diet •Opportunistic: fish, herps, birds, mammals, carrion Distribution •Midwestern and central United States Habitat •Semi-aquatic: lowland swamps, bayous, lakes, rivers, sloughs, irrigations ditches, canals Reproduction •Breed March – June •1 – 16 young born August - October •Ovoviviparous cottonmouthID •Deep loreal pit on each side between eye and nostril •Head wider than neck •Dark and heavy-bodies •Darker dorsal crossbands sometimes visible •Belly dark brown or black •Many individuals dark with no markings •Snout lacks well-defined markings •Scales weakly keeled •Anal plate single timberrattlesnake (Crotalushorridus) Diet •Small vertebrates Distribution •Central and eastern United States Habitat •Deciduous forests with rugged terrain •Hibernate in dens in winter Reproduction •Ovoviviparous •6-10 young timberrattlesnakeID •Deep loreal pit on each side between eye and nostril •Head wider than neck •Rattle present on black tail •4 color variations: Yellow- body yellow or brown, dark crossbands that break up anteriorly Western- body gray, yellow, tan or brown with a rusty mid-dorsal stripe Southern- body color pinkish buff, pale gray, or tan with black crossbands and a broad rusty mid-dorsal stripe Black- a heavy stippling of dark pigment hides much of the lighter pigment •Keeled dorsal scales •Anal plate single •Crown of head mostly covered with small scales easternmassasaugarattlesnake (Sistruruscatenatuscatenatus) Diet •Small vertebrates Distribution •Northern Midwestern United States Habitat •Moist habitats such as bogs, marshes, swamps, and wet meadows Reproduction •Ovoviviparous •8-20 young easternmassasaugarattlesnakeID •Deep loreal pit on each side between eye and nostril •Head wider than neck •Rattle present on black tail •Body gray or brownish •Row of large, dark blotches on back with 3 rows of smaller dark spots on each side •Black belly irregularly marked with light spots •Keeled dorsal scales •Anal plate single


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