Popular in Laboratory In Ecology And Systematics Of Amphibians, Reptiles, And Birds
Popular in Agriculture and Forestry
This 37 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sierra on Friday February 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FNR 252 at Purdue University taught by Kenneth F. Kellner in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Laboratory In Ecology And Systematics Of Amphibians, Reptiles, And Birds in Agriculture and Forestry at Purdue University.
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Date Created: 02/19/16
FNR252:LaboratoryinEcologyandSystematics ofAmphibians,Reptiles,andBirds LAB 4: SQUAMATA SUBORDER LACERTILLA (LIZARDS) Open Lab Change No open lab on Friday! Monday 2/22 9:30-5:30 All specimens on display SquamataCharacteristics Distribution ◦ Largest extant order of reptiles ◦ Lizards and snakes ◦ All continents except Antarctica Morphology and Physiology ◦ Skins with horny scales or shields ◦ Moveable quadrate bones ◦ Many species with venom Diet ◦ Most carnivorous Reproduction ◦ Males have hemipenes, a bi-lobed reproductive organ ◦ Viviparous , ovoviviparous, and oviparous species ◦ Some species can produce asexually through parthenogenesis SuborderLacertiliaCharacteristics Distribution ◦ Temperate and tropical regions of the world ◦ High dispersal ability ◦ Occupy a wide range of habitats Morphology and Physiology ◦ Most have 2 pairs well developed limbs with five toes on feet and well developed claws ◦ Long tails, moveable eyelids, ear openings, and scales Reproduction ◦ Most species oviparous and lay 2 or more flexible or hard- shelled eggs ◦ Some species are ovoviviparous, viviparous, or parthenogenetic ScaleLocations Important for keying lizards ◦Labial ◦Postlabial ◦Rostral ◦Subocular ◦Interparietal Scale T ypes Also know: Keeled – ridge down the center that may or may not extend to the tip of the scale T erminology containing pheromone secretions on the underside of the thigh Gular fold – fold of skin and scales on the throat Lateral groove – a distinctive fold of skin along the side of the body TerminologyContinued rd Parietal eye – vestigial 3 eye on intraparietal scale Osteoderm – bony deposits in the skin, result in stiff body Lamella – fine plates made up of setae (microscopic hairs) found on the underside of the toes and used for climbing DesertsoftheUnitedStates All occur along 30 degree north 100 degree West Longitude line Mojave – Rain shadow. Joshua trees, palms , cacti. Sonoran – Hottest desert in North America. Cacti, mesquite, agave, legumes. Chihuahuan – Creosote, agave, legumes FamiliesCovered ◦Polychrotidae (genus Anolis) ◦Crotaphytidae (genus Crotaphytus) ◦Phrynosomatidae (genera Sceloporus and Phrynosoma) ◦Helodermatidae (genus Heloderma) ◦eiidae (genus Aspidoscelis) ◦Scincidae (genera Plestiodon and Scincella) ◦Anguidae (genus Ophisaurus) Polychrotidae Distributed throughout South America and Southern North America Only one species native to United States Largest lizard genus in the world Anolis Primarily arboreal Most oviparous greenanole (Anoliscarolinensis) Diet •Insects, spiders, and other invertebrates Distribution •Southeastern United States Habitat •Semi-arboreal Reproduction •Breed April – September •Lay single eggs every two weeks Crotaphytidae Limited to south central United States and northern Mexico Primarily found in the desert or plains Fast moving Long limbs and tails Femoral pores Carnivorous easterncollaredlizard (Crotaphytuscollaris) Diet •Insects, especially grasshoppers, and other lizards Distribution •Southwestern united states (Chihuahuan desert) Habitat •Hilly, rocky areas often in arid or semi-arid regions Reproduction •Mate from May – June •2 – 11 eggs hatch in July easterncollaredlizardID •Large body with very large, broad head •Long tail •2 black stripes on neck •Body scales smooth and very small •Femoral pores present •Color may be greenish, yellowish, bluish, or brownish; throat is yellow or orange-yellow Phrynosomatidae Distributed through most of continental United States, Mexico, and northern Central America Highly diverse morphologically Most members desert species Oviparous and viviparous species easternfencelizard (Sceloporusundulatus) Diet •Primarily insects Distribution •Southern United States Habitat •Grasslands, shrublands, and the edges of pines or hardwood forests •Arboreal Reproduction •Mate from April – August •1 – 4 clutches of 3 -14 eggs easternfencelizardID •Dorsal scales keeled and pointed •No gular fold • Dark band along rear of thigh •Scales on back and belly about the same size •Males indistinct or absent dorsal crosslines and bluish bellies and throat •Females series of dark wavy lines across the back and whitish venter, sometimes with black flecks or small amounts of blue hornedlizards (Phrynosomaspp.) Diet •Ants, spiders, sow bugs, and other arthropods Habitat •Open habitats with loose, sandy soil Morphology and Physiology •Often inflate themselves when handled •May squirt blood from their eyes as a defense mechanism •Often called “horned toads” hornedlizards (Phrynosomaspp.) hornedlizardID •Dagger-like spikes present on head •Sharp projecting scales present on dorsal surfaces of body •Body oval and flattened •Spine like projections present on sides of the body •Body color often matches color of local soil Helodermatidae Distributed from southern Utah to northern central America Only 1 genus and 2 species Only venomous lizard species Heavy-bodied, short limbed, thick tails, 2 parted tongue, and sharp claws Small round beadlike scales with osteoderms Solitary and slow moving Oviaparous gilamonster (Helodermasuspectum) Diet •Small mammals, birds, eggs, and lizards Distribution •Extreme Southwest United States Habitat •Arid regions in the Sonoran desert Morphology and Physiology •Venom produced from modified salivary glands Reproduction •Begins in May •Eggs laid in August and hatch 10 months later gilamonsterID •Large, heavy body •Massive head •Short, sausage shaped tail •Short limbs with strong, curved claws •Dorsal surface covered with small, round, bead-like scales •Ventral surface scales are squarish •Loose folds of skin on the neck T eiidae New World Species Only 1 North American genus Small dorsal scales, large ventral scales Long neck, tail, and trunk with well developed limbs, forked tongue, and pointed head Terrestrial and Insectivorous All oviparous, some species parthenogenetic six-linedracerunner (Aspidoscelissexlineatus) Diet •Primarily insects Distribution •Southeastern United States Habitat •Drier areas with sandy or loose soil Reproduction •4 -6 eggs laid in June or July •Hatch in August six-linedracerunnerID •Back covered with thousands of tiny scales •Belly has 8 rows of large, smooth rectangular scales •Body slender •Tail is long and rough to the touch •6 or 7 light stripes separated by dark stripes that lack spots •Gular fold •Males belly washed with blue, and throat is green or blue females venter is whitish Scincidae Distributed on all continents except Australia Most species terrestrial or semi-fossorial A few species limbless and fossorial Smooth, cycloid, overlapping, shiny scales with osteoderms Insectivorous Tail fragile, easily lost, and rapidly regenerated Most viviparous commonfive-linedskink (Plestiodonfasciatus) Diet •Primarily insectivorous Distribution •Eastern United States Habitat •Moist woodlands with abundant cover and basking sites •Terrestrial Reproduction •Females lay eggs May – June •Females brood eggs until hatching commonfive-linedskinkID •Osteoderms •Body long and cylindrical and covered with smooth, sleek scales •Scales of middle row of undersurface of tails enlarged •4 labial scales and 2 enlarged postlabial scales •Young with 5 broad light stripes on a dark background and a blue tail •Individuals lose stripes and tail coloration as they age broadheadedskink (Plestiodonlaticeps) Diet •Insects, spiders, invertebrates, and other small lizards Distribution •Southeastern United States Habitat •Moist wooded areas with abundant cover and basking sites •Arboreal Reproduction •Females lay up to 22 eggs •Females brood eggs until hatching broadheadedskinkID •Osteoderms •Body long and cylindrical and covered with smooth, sleek scales •Large body •Scales of middle row of undersurface of tails enlarged •5 labial scales and no enlarged postlabial scales •Young with 5 broad light stripes on a dark background and a blue tail •Individuals lose stripes and tail coloration as they age littlebrownskink (Scincellalateralis) Diet •Insects and Invertebrates Distribution •Southeastern United States Habitat •Areas with loose soil, abundant leaf litter, and plenty of cover •Terrestrial Reproduction •Females lay clutches of several eggs in moist soil or rotten logs during the summer littlebrownskinkID •Osteoderms •Body long and cylindrical and covered with smooth, sleek scales •Small legs and body with a long tail •Golden brown to blackish brown body with dark dorsolateral stripe •Belly is white or yellowish Anguidae North America, South America, Europe, Asia, and extreme northwestern Africa Osteoderms Many limbless species Lateral groove Body elongate, stiff, shiny with external ear openings and closeable eyelids Most species terrestrial or semi-fossorial All carnivorous Variable reproduction slenderglasslizard (Ophisaurusattenuatus) Diet •Insects, spiders, and small vertebrates Distribution •Western subspecies in central United States Habitat •Drier areas often with sandy substrates and open grassy areas Morphology and Physiology •Tail easily lost and may shatter into several pieces Reproduction •Females lay eggs under logs and attend them until hatching slenderglasslizardID •Legless •Body and tail elongate, stiff, and shiny •Closable eyelids and external ear openings •Longitudinal groove with narrow, dark, longitudinal stripes or dashes present below •Osteoderms •Prominent dark mid-dorsal stripe or dashes present in young
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