SOC 4410: Criminology, week 6 notes
SOC 4410: Criminology, week 6 notes Soc 4410
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alison Carr on Friday February 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Soc 4410 at Bowling Green State University taught by Dr. Finkeldey in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Criminology in Sociology at Bowling Green State University.
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Date Created: 02/19/16
SOC 4410: Criminology, Spring Semester 2016 Week 6 Limitations of rational choice Exaggerates the rationality of offenders Violent crimes are often emotional crimes Routine Activities Theory Victimization requires: o Motivated offender o Suitable target o Lack of capable guardian Evaluating routine activity o The theory is very popular o Explains crime Among different groups of people In different locations Accounts for changes in crime rates over time Chapter 5 conclusions Move from religious causes of crime to classical perspective Neoclassical theories o Rational choice o Routine activities o Deterrence Chapter 7: Sociological Theories: Emphasis on Social Structures Introduction Individual-level theories cannot easily account for crime Social structure (environment) o Evaluates why some locations and groups have higher crime rates The legacy of Durkheim Durkheim emphasized the importance of structure Impulses held in check by: o Socialization o Social ties 2 structural conditions: o Anomie Periods of rapid social change Norms become less applicable A state of normlessness o Low social integration Social Disorganization and Human Ecology (Durkheim) Society changing in the 1800s Move from rural to urban areas Changing nature of relationships Chicago School of Sociology Social disorganization o Break down in bonds and control Human ecology o The study of people and environment Concentric zones Clifford R. Shaw and Henry D. McKay Studied delinquency in Chicago from 1900-1933 Delinquency high in inner zones of city regardless of which immigrant group or minority lived there Delinquency decreased as one moved away from the inner city Social Disorganization Theory Disadvantaged community structure (low SES, heterogeneity, turnover) social disorganization (no common values and ineffective social control) crime and delinquency Evaluating social disorganization o Methodological problems: Use of official records Circular reasoning Focus on poor criminals Underestimates of social organization Anomie/Strain Theory Robert K. Merton Strain occurs with dissociation between goals and means It results when too much emphasis is placed on goals or means are adequate Emphasis on economic success results in criminality when the means are lacking Modes of Adaptation Based on inability to attain societal goals, people choose a model of adaptation o 1. Conformity (law abiding, accept goals and means) o 2. Innovation (accept goal, reject means, most common deviant response) o 3. Ritualism (reject goals, accept means) o 4. Retreatism (reject goals and means, ex: drug addict) o 5. Rebellion ((reject/replace goals and reject/replace means) Evaluating Strain/Anomie Theory o Emphasis on poor o Does not explain violent crime o Doesn’t consider role of trill seeking o Ignores link or alcohol/drugs o Fails to explain one adaptation over another General Strain Theory Robert Agnew Strain from economic and noneconomic sources o Negative relationships with others Negative affect (anger, disappointment, depression, fear) Strain (economic and noneconomic sources, 3 main types) negative emotions (anger, disappointment, depression, fear) delinquency/crime (can result due to pressure from negative emotions) 3 types of strain o 1. Failure to achieve positively valued goals Difference between aspiration and expectation/actual outcome Difference between just/fair outcome and actual outcome o 2. Removal or positively valued stimuli o 3. Presentation of negatively valued stimuli Does this mean that everyone who experiences strain will engage in delinquency/crime? NO Only some people who experience strain will engage in delinquency/crime.
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