PSYCH 3070: Human Sexuality, week 6 notes
PSYCH 3070: Human Sexuality, week 6 notes Psych 3070
Popular in Human Sexuality
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Psychlogy
verified elite notetaker
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alison Carr on Friday February 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 3070 at Bowling Green State University taught by Patrick Nebl in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Human Sexuality in Psychlogy at Bowling Green State University.
Reviews for PSYCH 3070: Human Sexuality, week 6 notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/19/16
Psych 3070: Human Sexuality, Spring Semester 2016 Week 6 Birth Control For a particular birth control technique, the percentage of pregnancies during the first year of use by couples who: Perfect-use pregnancy rate o Use the technique properly and consistently Typical-use pregnancy rate o Use the technique, regardless of whether or not they use it properly or consistently Abstinence o 100% effective o “Abstinence-only” programs are not effective Behavioral changes are short-term and programs have no long-term effect Teens who take abstinence-only programs are less likely to use condoms when they do have sex and more likely to get (or get someone) pregnant Relatively ineffective methods: o Withdrawal The male withdrawals the penis prior to orgasm and ejaculates outside of the vagina The Cowper’s gland secretes fluid prior to orgasm BUT, relies on the male’s self-control (96% perfect vs. 78% typical) o Douching Rinsing out the vagina after sex in order to remove sperm However, sperm will have already reached the cervix, douching may even push them forward (60% effective) Fertility awareness: o Abstaining from intercourse while the female is likely ovulating o Calendar method- uses formula to estimate date of ovulation (but cycles are variable) and is 76-87% effective o Billings method- uses cervical mucus consistency to estimate ovulation, 97% perfect use rate but 76-87% typical use rate o Symptothermal method- uses basal body temperature along with cervical mucus, 99.6% perfect use rate but 80-87% typical use rate Spermicides o Foams, jellies, creams, film, suppositories, and tablets that contain sperm-killing chemicals o Often used in conjunction with a barrier method o When used alone: Perfect-use rate of 82% Typical-use rate of 72% Barrier methods o Male condom Invented in 1500s using lamb intestines Most modern condoms made out of rubber Perfect-use is 98%, but typical-use is 82% o Female condom Similar to a male condom, one open-ended ring is at vaginal entrance while the close-ended ring is pushed back to the cervix Perfect use is 95%, but typical-use is 89% o Both provide protection against many kinds of STIs o Diaphragm With spermicide Perfect use: 94% Typical use: 88% o Cervical cap Perfect use: 90.5% Typical use: 84% o Contraceptive sponge Perfect use: 91% (80% if previously given birth) Typical use: 88% (76% if previously given birth) The Pill 17% of reproductively-aged U.S. women are on the pill Nearly 100 brands, many of which act slightly different Synthetic estrogen and/or synthetic progesterone prevent the pituitary from releasing FSH and LH o Thicken cervical mucus, preventing sperm travel o Preventing release of egg (ovulation) However, the pill needs to be taken every day at the same time to be effective o 20-50% of users do not take it every day o Perfect-use in 99.7%, but typical-use in 91% Other Hormone-Based Contraception The Patch o Instead of havinthto take a pill a day, one has to change a patch every week (4 week off) The Ring o Ring inserted into vagina and left for 3 weeks o Perfect-use is 99.7% and typical-use is 91% for both o Both provide synthetic estrogen and progesterone The Shot o Injectable drug containing synthetic progesterones, every 3 months o Perfect-use is 99.8% and typical-use is 94% Long-Acting Reversible Contraception Intrauterine Devices (IUD) o More common than the pill worldwide o Copper or progesterone-releasing (effective for 10-12 or 5-7 years, respectively) o Prevent sperm transportation through uterus o Better than 99% effective Hormone implants o Single rod inserted under skin for 3 years o Releases synthetic progesterone Sterilization Vasectomy o Does not interfere with normal hormone production o Sever the vas deferens o Least invasive Tubal Sterilization o May safely engage in intercourse after operation (3 months for males) Emergency Contraception Plan B o “The morning after pill” o taken after intercourse has already occurred o 50% effective if taken within 3 days o High level of progesterone prevents conception Terminating Pregnancies Medical abortion o RU 486 chemically block progesterone and endometrium cannot be maintained o 92% effective, must occur within first 8 weeks Dilation and Curettage o Cervix is dilated and uterine lining is scraped o Used to be most common form for first 15 weeks of pregnancy Dilation and Evacuation o Vacuum removes fetal material o 88% of legal abortions in U.S., must be within first 12 weeks o Most used in the U.S. Induced labor The Future Male Pill o Attempt to male a pill that inhibits sperm production o Often side effects of lowered sex drive and inability to have an erection o Potential difficulties in inhibiting production of ANY sperm Vaccination o Cause body to produce antibodies to proteins in either eggs or sperm o Inhibits production, function, or outcome o Needs to be highly tissue-specific Pregnancy and Childbirth Conception Graafian follicle breaks open and releases ovum, where it enters the fallopian tubes Takes 3-7 days to travel down the uterus, but ovum can only be fertilized during the first 24 hours it leaves the ovary 200-400 million sperm released during ejaculation- only a few thousand reach fallopian tube and fewer than 50 reach the egg Sperm can live 3-5 days in reproductive tract If sperm does not penetrate ovum, it becomes overly “ripe” and disintegrates in the uterus Implantation Membrane allows sperms to pass, upon one sperm passing the membrane almost instantaneously changes to prevent more sperm Within 24-30 hours, nuclei have fused to form a zygote Cell division begins but size does not increase Blastocyst (about 100 cells) reaches uterus 8-11 days after ovulation, blastocyst attaches to endometrium Called an embryo after implantation, and fetus at about 8 weeks Umbilical cord and placenta will serve as mother/infant interface First trimester Mother o HCG secreted by placenta prevents corpus luteum from degrading and continues to produce progesterone (for the endometrium) o HCG pregnancy test most accurate 2 weeks or more after missed period o Morning sickness 50-90% experience nausea/vomiting Week 6/8 to week 20 Embryo/fetus o Endoderm from nervous system, skin, and teeth o Mesoderm forms muscles, skeleton, and blood vessels o Endoderm forms internal organs o 3 week: neural tube forms o 4 week: umbilical cord, heart, and digestive system begin to form th o 8 week: heart is pumping and all organs are developing Second trimester Mother o The movements of the fetus can be felt by the mother o Morning sickness ends o Water retention may cause swelling o Breasts swell and produce thick liquid which precedes milk Fetus th o 5 month: detectable heartbeat, responds to sound, and has definite periods of sleep and wakefulness o 6 month: can open eyes, suck thumb, and respond to light o At the end of this trimester, the fetus will be about 1 foot long and weigh 1 pound Third trimester Mother o Walk, sitting, and rising becomes more difficult o Back pain o Enlarged uterus puts pressure on bladder and stomach o Indigestion, heartburn, gas, and constipation are common o General low energy Fetus th o End of 7 month: fetus about 15 inches long and weighs 1.5 pounds o 8 month: fatty tissue develops under skin and weight gain rapidly th o End of 8 month: 16-17 inches long and weighs 4 pounds, will gain .5 pounds per week o 9 month: about 20 inches and 7-7.5 pounds Complications of pregnancy Teratogens: substances that can harm an embryo/fetus Each part of development has a critical period when some feature is developing and is susceptible Alcohol: most sensitive during wee 3 to end of first term of pregnancy, fetal alcohol syndrome associated with physical deformities and mental deficiencies Smoking: low birth weight, miscarriage, preterm birth, and infant mortality Other drugs: cocaine leads to diminished growth and preterm births, caffeine is associated with reduced birth weights, etc. Miscarriages o As many as 3 in 4 conceptions fail to implant or are spontaneously aborted o 15% of pregnancies past this first 6 weeks fail to survive to term Rh incompatibility o Antibodies in mother attack blood of the infant o Usually problem after first child, injection given to prevent antibodies Preeclampsia o Affects 3-5% of pregnant women o Excessive water retention leads to high blood pressure, weight gain, and swollen joints due to altered immune response o Baby must de delivered prematurely or else come may occur Highly sensitive periods Heart: weeks 3-6 Central nervous system: weeks 3-6 External genitalia: weeks 7-9 Evolution of morning sickness Protects embryo by causing pregnant females to expel and avoid foods which contain teratogenic and abortifcient properties o Morning sickness peaks when embryo is most susceptible o Females with morning sickness are less likely to miscarry o Females who vomit are less likely to miscarry than those with just nausea o Common aversions include alcoholic and caffeinated beverages and strong-tasting vegetables Greatest cross-cultural aversion is to meat, fish, poultry and eggs o Often contain parasites and pathogens o Pregnant females are immunosuppressed
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'