PSYCH 3110: Social Psychology
PSYCH 3110: Social Psychology Psych 3110
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alison Carr on Friday February 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 3110 at Bowling Green State University taught by Joshua Ricker in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at Bowling Green State University.
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Date Created: 02/19/16
PSYCH 3110: Social Psychology, Spring Semester 2016 Week 6 5. Obesity o 1/3 adult males in U.S. are obese o Gaming is linked to snacking o Obesity changes hormone levels Decreased testosterone Increased estrogen Low blood flow 6. Excessive porn use o Availability and variety promote use o In 2013, Pornhub was the 35 most visited site for males Ages 6-14 7. Over reliance on medication/drugs o Leads to apathy (lethargic) o Possible damage to nucleus accumbens (reward & motivation part of the brain) o 85% of all stimulant prescriptions are to young males o Medication can lead to recreational drug use Causes Man in general has not changed Environments and social conditions have been what has changed These environments are where men must interact 1. Changed family dynamics o Smaller households o Larger classrooms o Less relationships with adult role models o 1/3 of boys grow up in a fatherless home o U.S. leads the world in fatherless homes o No male role model may lead to identity seeking through video games, drugs, or objectifying women o ½ of teens eat dinner with their family o Kids who do not eat “family dinner” are more likely to do drugs o Rates of single mothers are increasing o Often leads to a strained relationship (too little time to spend with the child) Work Other family members o 50% of marriages end in divorce half of those end in the first 7 years o Rates increased with the “no-fault” divorce bill of 1969 o Related to the obesity epidemic? 2. Failing school system o Focus on rote memorization o Taking away gym and recess = no release of energy o Less than 1 in 9 teachers are males work ethic not emphasized 3. Environmental changes o Men are now less fertile than previous generations o Endocrine disruptors alter hormone levels 4. Technology enchantment o Technology obsession o Speed and visual stimuli engross us o No “reward” in looking at words o Technology provides instant gratification o Similar brain changes are seen in technology addiction as in drug addiction 5. Entitlement vs. reality o High school grades have inflated with no actual increase in performance o The Great Disappointment- the period around adolescence where an individual realizes they are not going to be “the next big thing” Sets them up for failure o When there are more available women, men don’t have to try as hard 6. The rise of women o Since the 1960s, women’s earnings have increased 44% Men’s 6% o How have women benefitted since then? Legality of birth control pills Title IX (1972) Roe v. Wade (1973) Family Medical Leave Act (1993) o 90% of young women in Japan believe staying single would be better than getting married 7. Patriarchy myths o Power- having control over one’s life and having access to fulfill personal experiences o Low income men = 54.7 years o Low income women = 57.3 years o High income men = 73 years o High income women = 80 years o Prostate cancer is diagnosed at higher rates than breast cancer Breast cancer receives 2x research funding o 68% of the homeless population is male o Males die at higher rates in nearly all of the 15 top categories Solutions 1. What can he government do? o Emphasize the role of the father o Limit the use of endocrine disruptors o Get more men into the grade school teaching o Junk food out of school 2. What can schools do? o Teach “life schools” o Incorporate more technology learning o Stop grade inflation 3. What can men do? o Ease up on the porn o Manage time more efficiently o Play sports Get good role models o Become friends with a female 4. What can the media do? o Represent men better in movies/tv o Improve dating websites o Change porn/video games 5. What can females do? o Communicate with your partner o Stop dating assholes Social Cognition What is social cognition? The study of how people think about the social world and make decisions about social relevant events o Why is behavior to often irrational o Misinformation can be contagious o Superstitions are a form of this Rationalization of thought/behavior We try to be rational, but aren’t all the time Jeremy Bentham- we engage in felicific calculus (happiness calculation) to make decisions o Increase pleasure and minimize pain Harold Kelley- people think like naïve scientists to explain others’ behavior Rational thought requires: o Accurate information o Mental resources needed to process the info Attribution process- the way in which we explain the behavior of others o Consistency- is it constantly happening? o Consensus- is everyone doing that one thing? Or just the one person? o Distinctiveness- is it a one-time thing for this one person? Types of thinking Automatic thinking o Nonconscious o Unintentional o Involuntary o Effortless Controlled thinking o Effortful and deliberate Holistic thinking o Take in the whole aspect Analytic thinking o Break it down into parts Counterfactual thinking o What could’ve been? o Could I have done something to change the situation? What’s wrong with our thinking? Cognitive misers- people act in ways to conserve energy o Ignore some information o Overuse other information o “Work smarter, not harder” This is efficient, but leads to errors or biases Social context The way things are presented and described 4 aspects: o Comparison of alternatives Contrast effect- something seems better or worse due to comparisons to other objects o Thoughts primed by a situation Priming- ideas that have been recently encountered or frequently activated will come to mind o How decisions are framed Framing- whether a problem or decision id presented in such a way that it appears to represent that potential for loss or gain o Presentation of information Order of information Primacy effect is key Amount of information Dilution effect- the tendency for neutral and irrelevant info to weaken a judgment/impression Heuristics Judgmental heuristics- mental shortcuts or “rule of thumb” o Not certain to get you answer o Very fast Algorithm- a well-defined way to answer a problem o Will get your answer o Takes a longer time The 3 heuristics: o Representative heuristic- we focus on the similarity of one object to another to infer that the first acts like the second o Availability heuristic- judgments are based on how easy it is for us to bring specific examples to mind More easy to recall = more likely it seems o Attitude heuristic- we assess objects to either a favorable or unfavorable category Halo effect- a general bias in which a favorable or unfavorable general impression of a person affects our inferences and future expectations about that person False-consensus effect- tendency to overestimate the percentage of people who agree with us False-uniqueness effect- we see out talents and moral behaviors, when good, as unique When do we use heuristics? o 1. No time to think it over o 2. Information overload o 3. The decision isn’t important to us o 4. We don’t know much about it anyway Categorization and Expectations Influences present and future actions Can lead to stereotypes – generalizing general motives or characteristics to an entire group o Not always wrong or negative o Can also lead to expectations Self-fulfilling Prophecy- the process that occurs when people: o Have an expectation about what another person is like, which then… o Influences how they act towards that person, and… o Causes that person to behave in a way that confirms those people’s original expectations Illusory correlation o Tendency to perceive relationships between entities that we think should be related but in fact are not This effect strengthens stereotypes
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