Week of 2/15-2/19
Week of 2/15-2/19 HEA 102-010
Kutztown University of Pennsylvania
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cassie Ferree on Friday February 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HEA 102-010 at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania taught by Dina Hayduk in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Intro to Health/Wellness in Health Sciences at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 02/19/16
February 15, 2016 Fats/ Oils/ Lipids Fats 9 calories per gram Stored energy Provides material for cell membranes Assist in absorption/transport of fat-soluble vitamins Affect texture, taste, and smell of foods Trans Fat – hydrogenated - Hydrogenated – some type on unsaturated fat with hydrogen added to it to compensate the hydrogen missing - Cheap - Crisper - Longer shelf life - More “spreadable” Saturated Fat – has hydrogen - Animal sources - Tropical oils - Solid at room temperature - Ex. Butter, palm oil, coconut oil Unsaturated – hydrogen missing 2 types both from plant source 1. Monounsaturated a. Liquid at room temperature b. Semi-solid or solid when refrigerated Ex. Olive, peanut, canola oil 2. Polyunsaturated a. Liquid at room temperature and when refrigerated Ex. Corn and sunflower oil b. Omega 3s 1. Tuna 2. Salmon 3. Walnuts 4. Some leafy greens, and cruciferous 5. Flaxseed oil Cholesterol – fatty-like substance found throughout cells of body - Obtained through diet or produced by the liver - Non-essential - Certain fats increase cholesterol High Density Lipoprotein – HDL - Lots of protein surrounding - Sends to liver to metabolize Low Density Lipoprotein – LDL - Less protein surrounding - Not enough protein surrounding to send to liver - Stays put Raise’s LDL - Cholesterol we eat - Trans fat - Saturated fat Total Cholesterol - less than 200 mg/dl (desirable) LDL – less than 100 mg/dl (optimal) HDL – greater than 60 mg/dl (optimal) *when cholesterol is taken be sure to ask what the HDL to LDL ratio is Fats Trans. Fat Increase LDL Decrease HDL Saturated Fat Increase LDL Monounsaturated Decrease LDL Omega 3s Increase LDL Polyunsaturated Decrease LDL Decrease HDL Cardio – decreases LDL Alcohol – increases LDL Protein 4 calories per gram 2nd most abundant substance in humans Key to every cell, antibodies, enzymes, and hormones Role in developing/repairing bone, muscle, skin *can provide energy for body but it is not preferred 2 types 1. Complete Proteins a. Animal source 2. Incomplete Proteins a. Plant source Vegetarians - Need variety of food besides meat - Vegan (nuts, seeds) Theory of Complementation Water – fluid of life How much is needed daily? Depends on: - Activities you do - Alcohol consumption - Sweat - What you eat *fruits and vegetables tend to include water *check your urine to know (darker is bad) (can change because of food eaten) Most abundant compound Useful in chemical reaction Stabilizes body temperature Flushes toxic waste Energy level decreases when dehydrated Vitamins Essential nutrients - Potent, essential, organic compounds Water soluble – dissolve in water - B-company and C Fat soluble – absorb through intestinal tract with fat - A, D, E, K Minerals: Essential Inorganic, indestructible elements that aid the body Common: - Iron - Calcium February 17, 2016 What are some health risks associated with obesity? - Diabetes - Cardiovascular Disease (heart attack) - High Blood Pressure - Asthma - Stroke - Arthritis - High LDL Cholesterol - Gallbladder Disease - Some Cancers (breast, pancreas) - Sleep Apnea How do you determine your healthy weight? Clothing Size (always shifting) - Bodies change over puberty (girls hip widen) - Bloating - Muscle gain Scale - Not correctly calibrated Body Fat Percentage (multiple readings) - Skin fold thing - Gold Standard (hydrostatic weighing) *First place fat lays is the hardest to get rid of What is a healthy body weight? - No ideal body weight, ranges for healthy body weight - Body Mass Index - Fat distribution not risk for illness - Absence of any medical conditions suggest weight loss - Men (6-23%) and women (14-29%) different “healthy” amounts of fat Too little body fat - Men (2-5%) - Women (10-13%) Body Mass Index - Relationship between height and weight - BMI of 19-24.9 indicates healthy weight - Limitations - Difference of body fat distribution - No body fat percentage Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis - No eating or drinking 30 minutes before - Urinate 30 minutes before - Must follow instructions to achieve best accuracy Measuring Tape Men Women Risk Less than .95 Less than .80 Very low .96-.99 Less than .81-.84 Low Greater than 1.00 Greater than .85 High Waist Circumference - Weight in abdominal region associated with more risk Men Women Risk Less than 35.5 Less than 32.5 Low 35.5-40 32.5-35 Moderate Greater than 40 Greater than 35 High *Waist is less than ½ of your height Obesity Risks Environmental factors in: - Energy intake is high - Energy output is low (increase in sedentary lifestyle) February 19, 2016 Healthy weight – it’s not a diet, it’s a lifestyle Managing your Weight What is a calorie? - A unit of measure that indicates amount of energy we obtain from a food. Not a direct source of energy. One pound of fat = 3,500 calories Keeping Weight Control in Perspective - Each person is different - Weight loss is not simple - Causes are complex, so is the solution Setting Realistic Goals - Maintainable lifestyle choices - SMART Goals Portions ½ cup fruit, vegetable pasta or rice (biggest portion needed) 1 cup milk, yogurt, or chopped fresh greens 3 oz. meat, poltury, fish (smallest amount needed) 2 tbs. salad dressing, oil, butter 1 oz. cheese “Miracle” diets – there is just no such thing - Ex. Gum, diet, soup, juice Based on testimonials “Confidential research” Promotes rapid and “painless” results Promise miracles Restricts food selection Does not involve physical activity Does not encourage behavioral change Healthy Weight Loss that Lasts About ½ -2 pound per week - ½ from decrease in calories - ½ from increase in physical activity Trouble with Starvation Diets Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) – amount calories needed for body to be functioning Thought I’ll just use stored fat in body to have energy and not eat - Need carbs to lost stored fat Body accesses protein in order to stay alive when starving (lose muscle mass) *People with a high protein diet need 7 times more water in order to digest protein Starvation needs lots of water but has a drastic muscle loss - Can’t maintain water Risk Factors for Obesity Metabolic Changes - Age - Body composition - Gender (men have more body muscles) - Stress response - Dieting *more muscles you have the more calories you burn at rest Heredity - Body type - Obesity genes - Brown fat cells (around kidney/liver) (higher BMR) - Hormonal influences (women have high body fat) - Dieting and obesity The problem of Underweight A sudden, unintentional weight loss = concern Some naturally thing (body type, high BMR) People try to gain weight, mostly muscle Successful Weight Loss includes Nutrition - Healthy choices - Appropriate amount of calories Exercise - Cardiovascular - Muscular strength and endurance
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