Week 4 Notes
Popular in Fundamentals of Biology II: Ecology and E
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chasia Notetaker on Friday February 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 12000 at Ithaca College taught by Nancy L Jacobson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Biology II: Ecology and E in Biology at Ithaca College.
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Date Created: 02/19/16
Notes for the week of February 15, 2016 Sexual Selection and Kin Selection mates are now the limited resource being competed for often involves the evolution of exaggerated traits may appear to be maladapted to the environment usually found only in males (sexual dimorphism) can evolve in two ways within sex competition intrasexual selection malemale competition exaggerated traits help male to win fight and get females other types of traits can help, ex. female mimicry between sex choice intrasexual selection female choice females can use exaggerated trait as basis for choice if a male can survive with the trait, he must be healthy and have good genes Kin Selection is another form of natural selection Altruistic behavior individuals increase the fitness of others at a cost to themselves extreme case: rather than having their own offspring they help care for another’s offspring defend their communal nests share food resources genes associated with caring for relatives may be favored by selection altruist pass on those alleles indirectly by helping relatives to survive and reproduce those relatives are likely to have copies of those alleles sibling share 50% of their alleles on average in hymenoptera (honeybees and ants) kin selection is even stronger females are diploid, males are haploid sibling (sisters) share 75% of their alleles share more alleles with sisters than own offspring Reciprocal altruism still benefiting another at the altruists shortterm expense expect favor in return sometime later must be be able to recognize and remember individuals common in primates, including humans Grandma factor when post reproductive women are present the offspring of their children have a higher probability of living compared to the offspring not raised with the help of post reproductive women usually this only applies to the maternal grandmother 13.5 > Homologies indicate Patterns of Descent that can be shown on an Evolutionary Tree Evolutionary tree history of life as a tree, with multiple branches from a common ancestral trunk to the descendant species at the tips of the twigs anatomical and molecular homologous structures can be used to determine the branching sequence of such a tree genetic code is shared by all species because they date to the deep ancestral past characters that evolved more recently are shared only within smaller groups of organisms
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