JSIS 201 Week 7 Notes
JSIS 201 Week 7 Notes JSIS 201
Popular in The Making of the 21st Century
Popular in International Studies
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Pollard on Friday February 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to JSIS 201 at University of Washington taught by Bachman, David in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see The Making of the 21st Century in International Studies at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 02/19/16
The Failure of the Détente and the "New" Cold War • Return of democratic communist parties o Italy (Eurocommunism) • More liberal communist parties re -emerged • The Communist party of Italy and France talked about shifting to the coming of power through electoral means • Much of the socialist agenda had been accomplished in much of Western Europe • Leaders of the Italian and French communist parties took advantage of the socialist agenda and began asking for coalition governments. • They began to accept democratic and socialist rule. o Chile (and left/right splits in Latin America generally) • Chile moved in the direction of the left • They had a fairly open society for a long period of time • Series of measures: nationalizing US investments in Chile which alienated US MNCs. • The Final Imperial collapse (Portugal) o One of the least significant and smallest members of NATO. o They had three colonies worldwide: Angola, Mozambique and East Timor. o Moved toward to the democratic transition o Low level guerilla conflict • Growing pressure on White Minority regimes in Africa o Britain resisted putting sanctions on its former colonial states o Increasing economic sanctions on South Africa o South Africa became increasingly isolate o It transitioned to white majority and democracy o Sanctions work when there's broad support in the international community support for them, there has to be vulnerability. • Newly Independent Countries as Majority of UN membership o By the mid 1970s, almost all of Africa was independent. o The Third World now constituted the majority of the United Nations. o It was more in the interest of humanity to come to the aid of countries who had little access to education and human rights. o North south split between the developing and developed world. • Personal computers begin to appear in mid 1970s. o The power of computing began to transcend on the lives of individuals. Bottom Line Through 1975 • Many achievements - SALT, ABM, European settlement, opening to China (and recognition by most countries), détente with Soviet Union. • Significant trade and economic growth worldwide. • But many of the foundations for these achievements were on the verge of collapse. The End of Détente • Effect of Watergate and transparency o Nixon's political survival was increasingly tenuous. • He was ultimately forced from power, but in the process he resigned before he was officially impeached. o CIA revelations • Attempted assassinations, trial uses of LSD, abuses of American civil rights. o War Powers Act • Requiring the President to gain congressional approval after 60 days of using military force. • How the executive branch can be more accountable re: the use of military force o More assertive Congress • The Jackson-Vanik Amendment • Attempt to deepen the ties between the US and the Soviet Union o Jimmy Carter and Human Rights • He articulates a vision of the US upholding the values of human rights • Human rights should be prioritized in the United States' foreign relations • He won the presidency. • Human rights began to factor in wheter or not the US would provide military support. o An ineffectual Carter Administration • A period of economic stagflation • Growing US disasstisfiacion with the economy, politics, etc. • He called for a national energy policy. § MEOW: The Moral Equivalent of War • He was seen as weak and ineffective o Sharpening liberal/conservative divide • Liberals wanting to continue to preserve détente • Conservatives increasingly skeptical • Oil crises and stagfla tion in the West o Continuing problems with oil supplies o Inflationary shocks are sent through the global economy o Systematic economic problems occur o Stagflation contributes to a sense of slow growth in the economy, loss of jobs, the capitalist system is facing a challenge • Crises and Opportunism o Various crises emerge around the world o They are taken advantage of and responded to by the United States and the Soviet Union "The Arc of Crisis" and Other Crises • The Arc o South Yemen and Weak States • Civil War • A fragile state was built and is now falling apart and splitting into various factions • The Soviets got involved • This is a strategic location for oil tankers going in and out of the Middle East o Angola and Southern Cone of Africa 1974 to 1990s. • The South Africans send in a military force into Angola § The US Cuban military forces defeat it • The Soviets and Cubans are taking advantage of the United States o Somalia/Ethiopia 1974-1978 • Soviet's switched sides and support Ethiopia • The Somalia's disrupted and invaded E thiopia • The Soviets gained Ethiopia as an ally • The US gained Somalia as an ally o Iran 1978-1979 • A big loss for American foreign policy: we lost our biggest foreign ally in the Middle East • The Soviets are being given an advantage o Afghanistan 1978- present • Communist movement comes to power • It's faction ally divided • It's policies alienate many • Internal opposition to the communist movement that holds the capital • In 1979: the Soviets invade in order to secure Communist rule in Afghanistan • A return to a Cold War type of atmosphere • Others o Chile 1973 o Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia 1975 o Nicaragua (Grenada) 1979, 1983 • Leftist movement comes to power o China/VN/Cambodia Consequences • A new global force ---> Militant Islam o Minority groups within Islam dominated large groups o Militants tried to seize the US embassy in Pakistan • The weak or failing state problem o Out of states that cannot exercise control of their own territory; both opportunities and dangers emerge. o With colonization: There never was a way by which the populations of these places identified with the place or the leader so there was never an agreement that this political system was legitimate. • This gave rise to civil war, displacement, etc. • A new oil crisis - even worse stagflation o The second one comes with the Iranian revolution. o It raised prices causing inflation o It caused economies to stagnate • Perception of Soviet advance, taking advantage of US (but Poland, the specifics of the other crises) o A weak US response under Carter o The Soviets were gaining momentum o Gave rise to neoliberal leadership • Ronald Reagan, Margaret Thatcher and neoliberalism o Thatcher expanded the size of the British military. o Thatcher and Reagan proceed to roll back many of the actions towards the welfare state o Introduction of new conservative economic theory: how large a role should the state lay in democratic state. • Actions that haunt the US to this day. o Carter and Sandinistas o Regan and Mujahideen o We funneled a lot of aid through the FBI through Afghanistan to Pakistan o Taliban The Fall of the Soviet Union/ The End of the Cold War Friday, February 19, 2016 2:55 PM Why did the Soviet Union Collapse? • Fukuyama - lost war of ideas o The Soviet Union had lost the war of ideas o Communism had lost its ability to inspire and to dedicate itself to the Communist cause o The system fails o The workings of the Soviet system couldn't meet the demands of modernity. • Economists - planned economies can't work • Other Social Scientists - Soviet system incompatible with modernity, etc. • US conservatives - Reagan's pressure o "Star wars" o Reagan launches a strategic defense mission • Problems with these theories/ approaches o These are broad and give background but these issues are specif ic in their actions and the time period. Mikhail Gorbachev and the Soviet Union in the 1980s • Soviet Succession Problems • Soviet Foreign Policy Problems o The Soviet's have troops in Afghanistan o US supplies weapons and aid to the opposition o Guerilla war against the Soviets o Reagan and Thatcher have built up Western defenses and puts pressure on the Soviets • Soviet Economic Problems o The growth rate has slowed down o The Soviet's had to channel more of their resources into the military o Gorbachev was faced with the trying to improve the economy. • Soviet Ethnic Issues o Multi-ethnic state o The non-slavic portion of the Russian population was projected to surpass the Russian population. o In the Baltics there was a desire for a nation state. • Chernobyl o The nuclear reactor exploded o This is the worst nuclear explosion in history o Gorbachev sees this as a fundamental problem of the Soviet system • Gorbachev's Rise to Power Gorbachev's Programs • Perestroika (economic restructuring) o Policy of economic restructuring o Getting the defense industry to produce more civil goods o Getting people to be more productive o Gorbachev wasn't very interested in economic rebuilding. • Glasnost o Openness - political reforms - the rise of Boris Yeltsin o Once we have better information and get popular feedbac k, this will allow us to push through a series of reforms o He began to energize rubber stamp type of parliamentary institutions • Foreign policy new thinking o He committed to withdrawing military troops from Afghanistan o Reducing support to Cuba and North Korea o Seeking to have a series of meetings with Reagan, Thatcher and others to bring around an end to end the Cold War. o They discussed the ideas of seriously eliminating their nuclear weapons.
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