Understanding Human Sexuality Chapter 2
Understanding Human Sexuality Chapter 2 psych 300
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anne Farley on Friday February 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to psych 300 at University of South Carolina taught by Elaine Belton in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Human Sexual Behavior in Psychlogy at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 02/19/16
Chapter 2: Theoretical Perspectives in Sexuality Sociobiology- application of evolutionary biology to understand the social behavior of animals Sexual selection o Competition between members of one gender (usually male) o Preferential choice by members of one gender (usually female) Evolutionary psychology o Focuses on the psychological mechanisms shaped by natural selection o Assumes that every characteristic we observe must have some adaptive significance Some human traits, however, may simply be design flaws Freud’s Parts of the Personality o Id the basic part of the personality which is present at birth- operates on the pleasure principle “I want it and I want it now” Does not put into consideration anyone else o Ego operates on the reality principle and tries to keep the id in line o Superego is the conscience and operates on idealism (morality principle) Conscience Freud’s Early stages of psychological development o Oral stage (birth to one year)- child’s chief pleasure is derived from sucking and otherwise stimulating the lips and mouth o Anal stage (second year)- child’s interest is focused on elimination Toilet training Phallic stage (ages 3 to 5 or 6)- you are who you’re going to be o Boys interest is focused on his phallus (penis) Oedipus complex develops but is resolved by castration anxiety (see father as rival for mothers affection) o Girls feel cheated and suffer from penis envy Electra complex resolution is not as complete as boys Erogenous Zones- areas of the body that are particularly sensitive to sexual stimulation o Libido Focused in various regions of the body Latency, in which sexual impulses are repressed or are in a quiescent state, lasts until adolescence Sexual urges reawaken with puberty, when the child moves into the genital stage Fixations at Freudian Stages o People do not always mature from one stage to the next o Most adults have at least traces of earlier stages remaining in their personalities Psychoanalytic Theory o Most of its concepts cannot be evaluated scientifically o Data were derived from patients of Freud o Overemphasis on biological determinants of behavior and instincts o A male-centered theory that may cause harm to women Learning Theory o Much of human sexual behavior is biologically controlled but some of it is also learned Psychological Theories o Principles of Learning Theory Classical conditioning takes place when a conditional stimulus is paired with an original stimulus Operant conditioning means a person is more likely to repeat a behavior if its rewarded (reinforcement) (Big Bang Theory example) Behavior modification involves a set of techniques used to change behavior Social learning based on operant conditioning: imitation and identification Social exchange theory based on the principle of reinforcement that someone chooses an action that will maximize reward and minimize costs Comparison level of alternatives- comparing the profits of one relationship provides over alternative relationships (pros and cons) Equity-believing rewards are proportionate to costs in a relationship Matching hypotheses- men and women choosing mates who match them on physical and social characteristics o Psychological Theories Cognitive Theory The study of the way people perceive and think What we think influences what we feel o How we perceive a sexual event makes a difference Symbolic Interaction theory Human nature and social order are products o Gender schemas a set of attributes that we associate with males and females Predispose us to process information on the basis of gender Filter out stereotype-inconsistent information, making them slow to change
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