Understanding Human Sexuality Chapter 3
Understanding Human Sexuality Chapter 3 psych 300
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anne Farley on Friday February 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to psych 300 at University of South Carolina taught by Elaine Belton in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Human Sexual Behavior in Psychlogy at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 02/19/16
Chapter 3 Measuring Sex o Self reports- participants are asked questions about sexual behavior and attitudes through: Paper questionnaires – because its anonymous people will be more honest (less inclined to answer in a way that would make them look good) Interviews – depends on skill of interviewer, may distort information to make themselves look better Distorting up: (find in book need to know for test) Distorting down: ^ Online o Behavioral Measures: Direct observations: scientists directly observe behavior (Masters and Johnson) Eye tracking: participants wear an eye tracking device that measures their point of gaze as they are shown pictures on a computer (sees where the eyes look and for how long on certain images- can determine sexual preference) Police reports: for studying illegal sexual behaviors o Biological Measures Genital measures (of sexual response): measures erection in males and vaginal changes in females Magnetic Response Imaging (MRI): looks at anatomy by using magnets to send and receive signals that give information while participants…. Functional MRI (find in book) Issues in Sex Research o Sampling- identifying the appropriate population of people to be studied Random sampling- each member of the population has an equal chance of being included in the sample Probability sampling- o Problem of refusal (or nonresponse) – people refuse to participate o Volunteer bias may occur when the research studies people who agree to be in the research o Purposeful distortion- intentionally fiving reports that are a distortion of reality o Memory- difficult to remember facts accurately o Difficulties with estimates- its difficult to estimate time, especially when engaged in an absorbing activity o Test- retest reliability- a series of questions is repeated to measure reliability of response o Obtaining independent reports from two different people who share sexual activity is anther method of accessing reliability (asking both partners individually) o Direct observations are accurate; no purposeful distortion or inaccurate memory can occur Problems- expensive, times consuming and sexual behavior in lab might be different than in a natural setting o Extraneous Factors: Gender, race, or age of the interviewer may influence the outcome of sex research (more comfortable with people similar to themselves) Wording of questionnaire influences sex research Ethical issues o Informed consent- participants have a right to be told beforehand what the purpose of the research is and what they will be asked to do o May not be forced t participate or continue o People may not be coerced to be in a study (can pay people, cant say “you will fail the class is you don’t participate”) o Protection from harm Investigators should minimize the amount of physical and psychological stress to people in their research Anonymity of response is important to ensure that participants will not suffer afterward for their participation o Justice Risks of participation and benefits of results should be distributed fairly across groups in society – if you are going to apply results to all types of people, all types of people should participate Researchers have the obligation to conduct their work in a way that benefits as wide a range of persons as possible o A Cost- Benefit Approach Will the benefits that result from the research be greater than the cost? Will the participants benefit in some way from participating? The Major Sex Surveys o The Kinsey Report ( 940s) Results in publication of Sexual Behavior in the Human Male and Sexual Behavior in the Human Female o The National Health and Social Life Survey Included all but 3% of population (Look up in book) o Survey of African American and Hispanic Youth (1997) o Magazine surveys are biased because no one magazine reaches a random sample and the response is unknown Studies of Special Populations o (Need to know results of survey of gay men in aids period and controversies/ problems) Web- based surveys o Can recruit much larger samples o Can locate individuals such as gays, lesbians, those involved in bondage, those who would not normally come in and admit that in regular surveys Media Content Analysis o Refers to a set of procedures used to make valid inferences about text Laboratory Studies Using Direct Observations Qualitative Methods
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