Understanding Human Sexuality Chapter 4
Understanding Human Sexuality Chapter 4 psych 300
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anne Farley on Friday February 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to psych 300 at University of South Carolina taught by Elaine Belton in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Human Sexual Behavior in Psychlogy at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 02/19/16
Chapter 4: Sexual Anatomy Female external organs Organs collectively known as vulva o Clitoris Sensitive organ important in female sexual response No real function in reproduction Tip (glans) knob of tissue externally in front of vaginal opening and urethral opening Shaft- consists of two corpora cavernosa Crura- two longer spongy bodies that lie deep in the body and run from tip to either side of the vagina under the labia majora Entrance to vagina is the most sensitive part Mons Pubis o Also called mons Latin for “mountain” or mons veneris Latin for “Venus” o Rounded, fatty pad of tissue, covered with pubic hair, at front of the body o Lies on top of the pubic bones o Labia Labia majors (outer lips) Covered with hair rounded pads of fatty tissue lying along both sides of the vaginal opening Labia minora (inner lips) Two hairless folds of skin lying between the outer lips and running right along the edge of the vaginal opening o Hymen Thin membrane which, if present, partially covers the vaginal opening Varies in physical types NOT a sign of virginity- can be born without it Female Genital Cutting o Also known as Female Genital Mutilation o Typically performed on girls between infancy & age 15 o According to the World Health Organization FGC is practiced in several forms Type 1- clitoridectomy Partial or total removal of the clitoris Occasionally just the prepuce (foreskin Female Circumcision is the term is sometimes used Type 2 Excision Partial or total removal of clitoris and inner lips Type 3- Infibulation Chapter 4: Sexual Anatomy Total removal of clitoris All of inner lips and some outer lips Raw edges of the outer lips stitched together to cover the urethral opening & the vaginal entrance leaving a small opening for urine & menstrual fluids Type 4- all other female genital procedures for non- medical purposes Ex: piercing Female Internal Organs o Vagina Tube shaped organ into which penis is inserted during coitus Passageway through which a baby travels during birth (birth canal) At the bottom it ends in the vaginal opening or introitus Pubococcygeus muscle may be stretched during childbirth o Vestibular bulbs Bulbs of the clitoris Two organs about the size and shape of pea pod Lie on either side of the vaginal wall, near the entrance, under the labia minora They are erectile tissue and lie close to the Crura of the clitoris o Skenes gland (G Spot) Female prostate or paraurethral glands Lies between the wall of the urethra and the wall of the vagina Its ducts empty into the urethra Secrets fluid that is biochemically similar to male prostate fluid Many women find it to be a region of special erotic sensitivity on the wall of the vagina o Uterus Also called a womb Size of a fist and is shaped like an upside-down pear Cervix- narrow lower third of uterus Fundus- top of uterus Body- main part of uterus o Fallopian tubes – produces egg Extremely narrow, lined with hair like projections called cilia Chapter 4: Sexual Anatomy Pathway by which the egg leaves the ovaries and the sperm reaches the egg Fertilization of the egg typically occurs in the infundibulum, section of the tube closest to the ovary o Ovaries Two organs about the size and shape f unshelled almonds- lie on either side of the uterus 2 functions Produce eggs (ova) Manufactures female sex hormones- estrogen and progesterone Breasts o Consist of 15 or 20 clusters of mammary glands, each with a separate opening to the nipple, surrounded by fatty and fibrous tissue o Nipple- where milk ducts open; at the tip of the breasts o Areola- slightly darker area surrounding the nipple Chapter 4: Sexual Anatomy Cont’d Male external organs o Penis External parts of the penis Glans o End or tip of the penis Meatus or urethral opening o Opening at the end of the glans; urine and semen pass through Body or shaft o Main part of the penis Corona o Raised ridge separating glans from the body of the penis Foreskin, or prepuce o Additional layer of skin that forms a sheath-like covering over glans. Absent in circumcised penis. Internal parts of the penis Internally the penis contains 3 long, spongy cylinders o Corpora cavernosa The two bodies lying on top o Corpus spongiosum Single body lying on the bottom of the penis; urethra runs through the middle o Become engorged with blood during erection o Preoccupation with penis size Not a strong correlation between flaccid and erect penis o Male Genital Cutting Circumcision Surgical cutting away or removal of foreskin Common in US, Jewish, and Muslim traditions Research indicated lower rates of HPV infections In Kenya & Uganda- lower rates of HIV infections Supercision Making a slit in the length of the foreskin on the top Subincision Chapter 4: Sexual Anatomy Cont’d Making a slit on the lower side of the penis along its entire length o Scrotum Also known as scrotal sac Loose patch of hair o Testes The gonads or reproductive glands Manufacture sperm Manufacture sex hormones Testosterone and other sex hormones Inside the testes Seminiferous tubules o Long series of threadlike tubes in testes o Manufactures & stores sperm Interstitial cells o Produce testosterone o Epididymis and Vas Deferens Epididymis Long tube coiled into a small crescent-shaped region on the top and side of the testis Stores & matures sperm Vas Deferens Tube that goes up and out of the scrotum and passes through the prostate where is called the ejaculatory duct o Seminal Vesicles Two sac-like structures that lie above the prostate, behind the bladder and in front of the rectum Produces 70% of the seminal fluid of ejaculation o Prostate Below the bladder Size and shape of a chestnut Secrets a milky alkaline fluid that is part of the ejaculate o Cowper’s Glands (or bulbourethral glands) Located below prostate Empty into urethra Produces a secretion before ejaculation (contains some sperm) Cancers of the Sex Organs o Breast Cancer Second most common form of cancer in women Risk factors Genetic factors Chapter 4: Sexual Anatomy Cont’d Long term use of HRT (Hormone Replacement Therapy) Obesity Diagnosis Self-exam, clinical exam and mammogram Surgeries Lumpectomy o Only lump and small bit surrounding tissue is removed Modified Radical Mastectomy o Breast and underarm lymph nodes are removed Radical Mastectomy o Cancer of the cervix, endometrium and ovaries Most common cancer in women after breast cancer 95% of cases of cervical cancer are caused by HPV Pap test is highly accurate and can detect long before symptoms Vaccine for females and males 9-26, that prevents most common HPV’s Hysterectomy Surgical removal of the uterus o Cancer of the prostate Second leading cause of cancer death in mean after lung Early symptoms: frequent urination, difficulty in urination, difficulty emptying bladder o Cancer of the testes Disease in young men Fist signs Lump in testes Pain in lower abdomen or groin
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