Understanding Human Sexuality Chapter 5
Understanding Human Sexuality Chapter 5 psych 300
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anne Farley on Friday February 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to psych 300 at University of South Carolina taught by Elaine Belton in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Human Sexual Behavior in Psychlogy at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 02/19/16
Chapter 5 Sex Hormones, Sexual Differentiation and the Menstrual Cycle Sex Hormones Hormones o Powerful chemical substances manufactured in the endocrine gland o Secreted directly into the bloodstream Most important sex hormones o Testosterone o Estrogen o Progesterone Sex Hormones in Males o Testosterone Masculinizing sex hormone o Follicle- stimulating hormone (FSH) Controls sperm production o Luteinizing hormone (LH) Controls testosterone production o Gonadotropin- releasing hormone Regulates the pituitary secretion of gonad- stimulating hormones Sex Hormones in Females o Estrogen Brings about many of the changes of puberty o Progesterone o Prolactin Stimulates production of milk by the mammary gland o Oxytocin Stimulates contractions of the uterus during child birth Promotes projection of milk Prenatal Sexual Differentiation o Sex chromosomes Transmit info to various organs on how to differentiate in the course of development o XX= female o XY= male Prenatal Development of Gonads o 7 week after conception, sex chromosomes direct gonads to begin differentiation o Male Undifferentiated gonad develops into testes at about 7 weeks Chapter 5 o Female Ovaries develop at around 13-14 weeks o If SRY (sex- determining region, Y chromosome) is present, then the testes differentiate and male development occurs Prenatal Hormones and the genitalia o Female Mullerian ducts turn into fallopian tubes, the uterus, an the upper part of the vagina o Male Wolffian ducts Decent of the Testes and Ovaries o Change shape and position as development changes take place o Testes travel from near the top of the abdominal cavity down into the scrotum via inguinal canal Cryptorchidism (undescended testes) occurs in 2% of males Brain Differentiation o During the prenatal period, sex hormones act on the brain Testosterone present during fetal development, estrogen receptors of hypothalamus become insensitive to estrogen If estrogen is present, they become highly sensitive to levels of estrogen in the bloodstream o Plasticity of the brain Constant change in response to experiences the person has Homologous and Analogous Organs o Homologous-Organs in the male and female that develop from the same embryotic tissue o Analogous- Organs in male and female that have similar functions Variables of Gender o Chromosomal gender- XX or XY, internal organs o Gonadal – sex organs, external genital appearance o Prenatal hormonal- pubertal hormonal gender o Prenatal and neonatal brain differentiation- assigned gender, gender identity Atypical Prenatal Gender Differentiation o Intersex (pseudohermaphrodite) Biologically a person’s gender is ambiguous o Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Also called adrenogenital syndrome Chapter 5 Normally- developed ovaries begin to function abnormally later in the course of prenatal development Androgen-insensitivity syndrome Genetic male produces normal levels of testosterone but the body tissues are insensitive to testosterone and the prenatal development is feminized Puberty vs. Adolescence o Puberty- physiological transition o Adolescence- psychological transition Cervical mucus cycle o Glands in the cervix secrete mucus throughout menstrual cycle o Mucus protects entrance to cervix from bacteria o Mucus is alkaline, thick,, viscous at star of cycle o Makes environment more hospitable for sperm Basal body temperature cycle o Temperature fluctuates with phases of menstrual cycle o Temp low during follicular phase o Decreases on day of ovulation o Rises noticeably day after ovulation o Temp increases due to increase in progesterone during luteal phase o Important when couples are using rhythm of birth control Cycles in Men o T=One study (2002) Found that mens testosterone levels displayed weekly fluctuations Men with a female partner & wished to have a child displayed a 28 day cycle of testosterone levels Men who had sex with an unfamiliar partner 100% increase in testosterone the next morning
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