Understanding Human Sexuality Chapter 6
Understanding Human Sexuality Chapter 6 psych 300
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anne Farley on Friday February 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to psych 300 at University of South Carolina taught by Elaine Belton in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Human Sexual Behavior in Psychlogy at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 02/19/16
Chapter 6: Conception, Pregnancy, and Childbirth Conception o Sperm Meets the Egg On day 14 of average menstrual cycle Egg is released from the ovary into the body cavity (fallopian tube to uterus- 5 days of fertilization- propelled by cilia If not fertilized, disintegrates in 48 hours o The cervix secretes mucus that flushes the passageways to prepare for arrival of the sperm o Sperm capable of swimming about an inch per hour 2/1000 of an inch in length DNA Contained in nucleus in head of sperm RNA Carries instructions for early embryotic development o Conception: In the Fallopian Tube o Conception usually occurs in the outer third of the fallopian tube The egg is surrounded by a thin, gelatinous layer called zona pellucida Sperms swarm around the egg and secrete an enzyme called hyaluronidase This enzyme dissolves the zona pellucida permitting one sperm to penetrate the egg Typical ejaculation One teaspoon (3 ml), 200 million sperm o Pre-conception Checklist Take a multivitamin containing 400 micrograms of folic acid Get vaccinations up to date Consider genetic testing Aim for a healthy pre-pregnancy weight Control blood sugar Stop the consumption of drugs, alcohol, and tobacco o Improving Chances of Conception Time intercourse do it occurs around the time of ovulation Keep a basal body temperature chart Best to have intercourse about four times during the week which the woman is to ovulate (sperm viable inside woman up to 5 days, egg viable 12-24 hours after ovulation) Chapter 6: Conception, Pregnancy, and Childbirth Best position for conceiving is with the woman on her back Lubricant may kill the sperm or block from entering o Development of the Conceptus The fertilized egg is call a zygote Cell division begins in about 36 hours 5-7 days implantation First 8 weeks of gestation The conceptus is called an embryo From then until birth it is called a fetus Pregnancy About 9 months divided into 3 trimesters o Support Systems for the Embryo Placenta- nurtures conceptus Umbilical cord- developed during 5 week of embryotic development Amniotic fluid maintains the fetus at a constant temp and cushions against injury o Developments of the Fetus 1 trimester- small mass of cells implanted in the uterus develops into a fetus nd 2 trimester- the woman can feel movement and heartbeat can be detected by 18 weekth 3 trimester- fetus turns in the uterus to assume a head down position If the turning does not occur by delivery there will be breech position o First Trimester (1 12 weeks) Physical changes Hormonal increases Breasts swell and tingle Need to urinate more Some have morning sickness Increase vaginal discharge Feeling of fatigue and sleepiness Psychological Changes Emotional state varies o Attitude toward pregnancy o Social class o Availability of support Fear of miscarriage o Second Trimester (13-26) Physical Changes Chapter 6: Conception, Pregnancy, and Childbirth Awareness of fetal movement (quickening) Edema o Water retention and swelling o Face, hands, wrists, ankles and feet Colostrum o Thin, amber colored liquid Psychological Changes Fear of miscarriage diminishes Tensions associated with labor & delivery not yet present Depression less likely Women who have had pregnancy are less stressed o Third Trimester (27-38) Physical Changes Uterus is large and hard o Pressure on other organs causes discomfort More fetal activity o May cause sleeplessness Braxton-Hicks contraction Psychological Changes Patterns noted earlier continue o Fathers Experience in Pregnancy Physical Changes Couvade Syndrome o Fathers experience of pregnancy symptoms Indigestion, gastritis, nausea, change in appetite, headaches Psychological Changes Expectation of involvement Initial ambivalence followed by increases positive expectations of fatherhood o Sex During Pregnancy Given a normal, healthy pregnancy o Intercourse can continue safely until four weeks before delivery o Effects of Substances Taken During Pregnancy Antibiotics- long term can cause fetal anomalies Alcohol abuse- may result in FAS Chapter 6: Conception, Pregnancy, and Childbirth Cocaine abuse- associated with an increased risk of premature birth and low birth weight Cigarette smoking- Largest and most consistent effects are on children of white women Steroids- can cause masculinization of a female fetus Psychiatric medications o Risks vary o
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