Biochemistry Week 3
Biochemistry Week 3 CHEM 3653 - 001
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauran Notetaker on Friday February 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 3653 - 001 at University of Oklahoma taught by Dr. Paul A. Sims in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Biochemistry in Chemistry at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 02/19/16
February 2, 2016 If the separation of pH and pKa is more than 2 units then it is completely protonated DeltaG = DeltaG not + RTlnQ where DeltaG not is determined under standard conditions of 1M initial concentrations of reactants and products, 298K and 1atm At equlibrium, DeltaG = 0 and Q = Keq DeltaG not = -RTlnKeq DeltaG = DeltaH - TDeltaS DeltaG = DeltaG not + RTlnQ assume DeltaG = 0 DeltaG not is standard state aA + bB cC + dD Keq = [C]^c [D]^d [A]^a [B]^b Value of Q Value of G Favored Direction < K < 0 Forward Reaction ( formation of products) =K = 0 Neither (system at equilibrium) >K > 0 Reverse Reaction (formation of reactants) Phosphoryl Group O- | O- — P — || O Pi - Inorganic Phosphate O || HO — P — O- | O- “Thermo Problem Solution Modiﬁed” O H | | | H —C — O — P — O- Phosphoryl group produced | | O- ATP coordinated to magnesium Mg 2+ + ATP 4- MgATP 2- If the above reaction has a Keq of 10^4 M^-1, what percent of the ATP in a cell is present as the Mg 2+ chelate if Mg 2+ is 0.02M? Keq = [MgATP 2-] [Mg 2+] Keq = MgATP 2- [Mg 2+] [ATP 4-] ATP 4- f = [MgATP 2-] = 200 = 0.995 = 99.5% [MgATP 2-] + [ATP 4-] 200 + 1 Discovery of DNA was premature discovery like Mendel’s peas (1900s) Friedrich Miescher Grifﬁth could take bacterium with 2 strains (1920s) “smooth” and “rough” appearance 1 would die and 1 would live after the injection into mice DNse - enzyme to degrade DNA inﬂuenced rules regardless of organism Chargaff A = T C = G Watson and Crick also inﬂuenced Proteins also contain sulfer DNA has a lot of phosphorus atoms Skip section 4.4 of chapter cystic ﬁbrosis - autosomal recessive February 4, 2016 Th free energy of Hydrolysis of ATP, ADP, and AMP 4.184 J/ cal ATP - thermodynamically “unstable” can be hydrolyzed to ADP (favorable) last reaction of glycolysis - pyruvate DeltaG not’ refers to biochemical DeltaG = RTln [A]2 transport processes [A]1 DeltaG not’ = -nF DeltaE not’ corresponds to a spontaneous process (i.e. yileds a negative DeltaG not’ overall) H- : hydride Reduction - when you add electrons Catabolism - break down Anabolism - build up The free energy of oxidation is greater when we start out Reduced fuel oxidized cofactor H2O molecule Oxidized fuel reduced cofactor O2 molecule DNA chains run antiparallel The nitrogenous bases of DNA and RNA are Purines - Adenine and Guanine Pyrimidines - Cytosine, Thymine, Uracil (no methyl group on 5-carbon) RNA - ribose (OH on 2’ carbon) DNA - 2’ deoxyribose (H on 2’ carbon) nucleoside - nitrogenous base connects to sugar nucleotide - nitrogenous base connects to sugar and one or more phosphoryl groups Be able to draw pairs together C to G T to A A to U cytosine will spontaneously deaminate and have uracil DNA is molecule of heredity DNA is more stable to alkaline hydrolysis than RNA dNTP deoxynucleoside triphosphates RNA synthesis - NTP Water hydrolyzes PPi to 2Pi and is irreversible
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