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Memory Notes

by: Krista Lindenberg

Memory Notes PSY-4073-5073-001

Krista Lindenberg
Arkansas Tech University
GPA 3.8

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About this Document

These notes cover topics pertaining to Memory discussed during our lectures for the week of February 15-19. All charts can be found in the supplemental partial slides.
Cognitive Psychology
Steven Andrew Berg
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Krista Lindenberg on Friday February 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY-4073-5073-001 at Arkansas Tech University taught by Steven Andrew Berg in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychlogy at Arkansas Tech University.

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Date Created: 02/19/16
 Memory  Process that underlie our encoding, storage, and retrieval of information is known as memory  Our attention is mostly comprised of information going in and information going out of our memory  Memory affords us the opportunity to have a sense of continuity with regard to the timing of events  Encoding  Initial processing that leads to formation of a mental representation  Important features of event are encoded into memory representation  Storage  Retention of encoded information over time  Retrieval  Process of recovery for information stored in memory  Implicit vs. Explicit Memory  Memory is said to be explicit when encoding and/or recall efforts are conscious  Memory is said to be implicit when information is available without conscious effort  Example: explicit: what is missing from the picture?  Example implicit: what is wrong with the picture?  Declarative vs. Procedural Memory  Information we know about things (facts and events) is known as declarative memory (names, location, labels, etc.)  We also retain information about how to do things: procedural memory (riding a bike, whistling, swinging a hammer)  Why does a cognitive system need memory?  All learning required memory  Requires drawing inferences  Example: did Elvis have toes?  Integration of information  Reading requires information be integrated from successive saccades  Example: Bill drove down the road before he spoke  Recognition of instances of a category match  Problem solving and reasoning  Modeling Memory  Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968)  Modal model of memory  “Modal” because it featured similarities to many of the early models of memory  Sensory Memory  Very brief; holds all incoming information from various sources of input but does so for less than a second  These processes are typically not conscious  Examples of persistence of vision (light) as we retain the perception of light  Frames of film in an old movie “flick”  Lightning  Sparkler’s trail (think fireworks, not person)  Short term memory (STM)  Limited capacity; holds less than 7+or-2 items for less than a minute  Typically consists of the stuff you’re actively conjuring, imagining, analyzing, etc.  Control processes  Rehearsal  Keep repeating information in your mind so it does not leave STM  Selective Attention  Strategies for selectively focusing your attention on information in STM  Components of memory does not necessarily act in isolation  Long Term memory (LTM)  Unlimited capacity  Dominic O. Brian is 8 time winner of world memory championship  Iconic Memory  Sperling (1960)  Present array of twelve letters (4x3grid) on screen for very brief period (flash for 50ms)  3 experimental conditions  Whole report  Participants asked to report all letters recalled  Report 3.5/12 (~30%)  Suggests limited perceptual span  Partial report with immediate tone  Report 3.5/4 (~87%)  Partial report with delayed tone  Report same as whole report condition; ~1 letter per row  Seems all possibilities are briefly available  The icon deteriorates rapidly (~250ms)  Sensory span may be less limited than STM.  Short Term Memory  Not a permanent place for memories, rather STM is a mechanism for focusing your attentional resources on a small set of information for a short amount of time.  Preserves recent experiences long enough for encoding to take place  A temporary slot for information before it gets encoded and for information that is recalled from permanent stores  Duration of STM  Peterson and Peterson (1959)  Exposure Task  Experimenter reads aloud three letters followed by a number  Participants task is to remember the letters  Begin by repeating number than counting backwards by three as from that number  Recall letters after some time when prompted  Exposure Task  Average memory performance (%correct) after many trials  80% after three second delay  12% after eighteen second delay  When rehearsal is prevented STM is approximately 15 to 20 seconds  Keppel and Underwood (1962)  What if performance on later trials is influenced by exposure to earlier trials?  Decided to look at performance on trial to trial basis  Drop off in performance only after a few trials  Not simple decay, delay times counterbalanced across trials yet performance varies  Proposed that old information interferes with processing of new information  Interference  Memories do not decay or burn out, rather memories get interfered with by new information that has been added to storage  Lots of stuff goes on in your life, events change quickly, the mind is continuously occupied with thoughts, and we are bound to have memory interference.  Two types of interference  Proactive interference  Old memories proactively jumping forward to influence or affect your ability to encode new information  Ex. Old phone number interfering with learning of new phone number by popping into memory  Retroactive interference  New memories interfere with ability to retrieve old information, difficult to access  Ex. A sports fan has trouble recalling the names of players on a team from his youth because there have been so many players since  Levels of Processing  Levels of processing theory suggests that deepness at which information is processed can affect the probability of a memory being retained.  Higher depth of processing, increased likelihood of retention  Lower depth of processing, decreased likelihood of retention  Digit Span  What is the capacity of short term memory?  How many digits can a person remember?  Typically, STM holds 7 +or-2 items (numbers, letters, words, etc.)  It’s no accident that a telephone number is seven numbers and your student ID is eight.  But what constitutes an item?  Chunking (introduced by Miller in 1956) is  a method of configuring a large set of information into smaller sets based on some organizing principle.  Elements with a chunk are strongly associated with each other and weakly associated with elements in other chunks  Can remember a greater number of basic elements by chunking  Chunking Continued  Chase and Simon (1973)  Participants (chess master and chess beginner) view chess board for five seconds and asked to memorize position of pieces  Some boards have pieces placed randomly while others have pieces positioned for an actual game.  Chunking depends on knowledge and experience with to-be-chunked items  Results: master does better when pieces are positioned for an actual game because they can chunk based on game experience  When pieces are randomly placed, the master does just as poor as the novice.  How is information encoded into Short Term Memory?  Type of Coding  Auditory  Example: sound of the person’s voice  Visual  Example: image of a person  Semantic  Example: meaning of what the person is saying  Multimodal coding  Zhang and Simon (1985)  Chinese language symbols presented to native speaking Chinese participants  Greater recall when auditory coding is possible  2 forms of information available  Semantic Coding  Wickens et al. (1976)  Participants in one of three groups will be tasked with memorizing one category - either fruits, meats, or professions; 4 trials  Count backwards for three seconds then recall three words from that trial  Release from proactive interference; memory increased  When given fourth trial of fruit, all the fruit is competing and recall goes down whereas in professions it is a new category and so recall goes up. Meat is in the middle because it more closely related to food like the fruit.  Working Memory  Baddeley et al.  A set of storage capabilities and processes for immediate or primary memory  Resources in working memory are used to accomplish reasoning, tasks, comprehend language, and learn  Limited capacity for temporary storage and manipulation of information in complex tasks  Working memory (WM) differs from STM in that it has multiple parts with active processes  STM holds information for a period of time  WM manipulations information during complex cognition  There are four main components in WM  Phonological Loop  Holds speech based information (pronunciation or phonological code) so that attentional resources can access it as it unfolds over time  The process of “listening” to a telephone number as you rehearse it over and over again in your mind is making use of your phonological loop  Evidence demonstrated by phonological similarity effect  Letters or words that sound similar are more confusable; they interfere with each other more  This should occur regardless of rather the original presentation of items was visual or auditory  More evidence demonstrated by word-length effect  Memory for lists of words is compared for short words vs. long words  Example. bat, card, glue vs amplifier, scientific, cardiology  Length can be considered in terms of syllables or as reading time; the relation is linear  Takes longer to rehearse long words and to produce them during recall  Short words are recalled more easily  Visuospatial sketchpad  Central Executive  Episodic Buffer


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