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CHEM 1201, January 25 & 27 Notes

by: Kelsie Carter

CHEM 1201, January 25 & 27 Notes CHEM 1201

Kelsie Carter
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Kristi Follett

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About this Document

These notes cover inexact and exact numbers, density, matter, significant figures, sig fig rules, and conversion factors.
Kristi Follett
Class Notes
Chemistry, Math, sigificant figures, Rules, Conversion Factors, conversions, Density, matter, Exact Numbers, inexact numbers




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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelsie Carter on Friday February 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 1201 at University of Colorado Colorado Springs taught by Kristi Follett in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views.


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Date Created: 02/19/16
1 cm 01 M I 1 X 10quot2 82 M 8200 cm I 82 X 10quot3 189 mL 189L I 189 X 10quot1 576 mm 576 M I 576 X 10quot1 V lnexact measured numbers vs exact numbers A lnexact numbers are obtained by using a measuring device ruler scale B Exact numbers are obtained by counting or from establishing equivalents one dozen 12 eggs C Accuracy close to accepted true value vs precision how close two values are to each other reproducibility Vl Signi cant Figures A lnexact measured numbers that have a last digit which is estimated B Uncertainty depends on the device used to measure measure one place further than the last calibrated mark C Sig Fig Rules 1 Any nonzero digits are signi cant 46 2 SF 2 Any zero between 2 SF is signi cant 303 3 SF 3 Zeros after a coef cient of a number in scienti c notation are signi cant 10 x 10quot23 2 SF 4 Zeros after other sig gs in a decimal are signi cant 570 3 SF 5 Zeros between a decimal point and a signi cant gure in a number less than one are not signi cant 0004 1 SF 6 Trailing zeros are not signi cant 5700000 2 SF 600 1 SF 7 My use scienti c notation to indicate signi cant gures 8 Signi cant gures do not apply to exact numbers conversi00n factors D Rounding Signi cant Figures 1 31145 rounds to 3 sig gs 311 2 If the rst digit dropped is 5 6 7 8 or 9 raise the last sig g by one 3 If the rst digit dropped is 4 or less leave the number as is E Signi cant Figures in Calculations an answer cannot be more precise than any measurement used in calculation 1 Multiplication or division the answer must contain the same number of sig gs as the least in the problem 3710 x 30 1113 11 004 x 21738 086952 9 2 Addition or subtraction answer must contain same number of decimals as least in the problem 371 825 862 1937 211600 179 3 For CHEM 1201 18 32 273 exact numbers Answer should be recorded to the same number of decimal places as original temperature Vll Conversion Factors quotProblem Solvingquot A known x conversion factor unknown B conversion factors are numerical equalities exact numbers C English English and metric metric conversions are considered exact do not apply conversion factors with signi cant gures Englishmetric conversions are also exact 1 in 254 cm D Steps 1 Write known 2 Determine conversion factors 3 Solve 4 Check units signi cant gures Vlll Density mass per unit volume A D MV B units gmL can also be gcc or gcmquot3 C values vary with temperature D less dense substances oat on more dense substances E displacement of an irregular object is used to nd volume F speci c gravity compares density of a substance to density of water NO UNITS use a hydrometer to measure speci c gravity IX Matter is anything that exist and takes up space naturalsynthetic classi ed by components A pure substances xed or de nite composition elements and compounds 1 elements consist of one type of atom cannot be broken down by ordinary chemical means C Carbon 2 compounds consist of two or more elements chemically combined in a de nite ratio CO or C02 B mixtures two or more substances that are physically mixed 1 Not chemically combines 2 Can be separated C States of matter 1 Solid de nite volume de nite shape 2 Liquid de nite volume no de nite shape 3 Gas no de nite volume no de nite shape D Properties of matter 1 Physical color size shape melting point Observe without changing 2 Chemical ammability Changes E Changes of matter 1 Physical melting ice composition remains the same 2 Chemical burn paper rusting nails composition changes and forms new substances


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