PSY 101|Psychology of Learning and Memory
PSY 101|Psychology of Learning and Memory PSY 101
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alvin Notetaker on Friday February 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 101 at Arizona State University taught by Mae in Winter2014. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 02/19/16
The Psychology of Learning Conditioning Learning Classical Conditioning 0 worked on by Pavlov Operant Conditioning 0 Worked on by Skinner Observational Learning 0 Worked on by Bandura Classical Conditioning Pavlov worked with dogs 0 Notice that dogs do better with a routine Unconditional Stimulus UCS 0 Natural o Evokes UCR Unconditional Response UCR 0 Natural 0 Response to UCS Conditioned Stimulus CS 0 Learned o Evokes CR Conditioned Response CR 0 Learned 0 Response to CS Stimulus Generalization CR to act in a similar stimuliresponse o This and that Stimulus Discrimination CR restricted to specific stimuli o This but not that Acquisition Starting stage of learning forming a new CR Extinction The loss of learned responses Spontaneous Recovery Reappearance of response after loss of response due to nonexposure Operant Conditioning Skinner worked on rats Conditioning based on reinforcement rewards amp punishment Skinner s box 5 if Food LeV39eI Food dispenser Rat Reinforcement o Delayed reinforcement The delay of time between a desired action and reward 0 Primary reinforcement Natural rewards no learning 0 Example food water etc 0 Secondary reinforcement Unnatural rewards learning 0 Example Money grades etc Shaping Rewarding small behavior or action Small steps Resistance to Extinction Increasing function of reinforcer rate Reinforcement Schedules O Continues delivers reinforcement every time the desire action is perform 0 Intermittent delivers reinforcement not every time the desire action is perform 0 More better Four types of Consequences In psychology 0 Positive means adding or given 0 Negative means removing or taken away Give something pleasant positive reinforcement Remove something unpleasant negative reinforcement Give something unpleasant positive punishment Remove something unpleasant negative punishment Observational Learning Bandura worked with children with a Bobo Doll Learning by modeling watching somebody else Necessary 0 Attention O Retention 0 Reproduction 0 Motivation The Psychology of Memory Three Processes of Memory Encoding processing put ion form for the brain Storage Save to the brain Retrieval Find in storage remember Forms of Encoding Phonetic encoding by how it sound 0 Least efficient Structural encoding by its structure Semantic encoding by what it meant to the individual 0 Most efficient To supersize semantic encoding personal relevance Memory Over the Lifespan Infantile amnesia Develop language not language Peak 25yearsold Postpeak correlates older means decay of memory 0 Older people remember events the best at 2030 years old 0 This year range occurred most of the first experience 0 Theories of Forgetting Decay Not in use so memory fade over time Interference O Proactive New information is difficult to learned due to old information 0 Retroactive New information hinder the recalling of old information Repression the wanting to forget Retrieval False memory created by O Schemas 0 Repeated assertions 0 Heavy marijuana usage StateDependency of Retrieval Mood makes people remember better Level of consciousness Context 3 Memory Tricks Mnemonic device create a sentence to make memorizing better and more effective Chunking chop up large thing into smaller section Spacing Spread memorizing a subject over a period of time Most Effective Memory Strategy TwoStep active Studying 0 Testing with yourself or with other people 0 Feedbacks Seven Deadly Memory Sins Absent Mindedness a break in working memory Transience memory decay last for a short time Blocking problem getting to the brain due to interference Misattribution Confuse the source of the information Suggestibility Suggestion can create false memory Bias Can affect how to interpret Persistence Memory last further good or bad Flashbulb Memories a high detailed memory that last for a really long time if not a lifetime 0 Associated with historical event or great personal experience can be good or bad Memory Disorders 0 Organic Physical cause that is known 0 Dissociative Lack any clear organic bases 0 Amnesias amp Fugues o Dementias o DID Dissociative identity disorder I Multiple identities disorder Pills 0 Limited to agerelated memory loss 0 Only help some side effect