Chapter 16: Conquest of the Far West
Chapter 16: Conquest of the Far West HIST 1378
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Julia Taboh on Friday February 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1378 at University of Houston taught by Professor Matthew Clavin in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 99 views. For similar materials see The U.S. Since 1877 in History at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 02/19/16
The U.S. Since 1877 HIST 1378 – 11 (25824) Prof. Clavin Conquest of the Far West Identification Terms Plessy V. Ferguson Dawes Act Expansion of slavery led to the civil war (1861 – 1865) Cornerstone Speech (March 21, 1861) Many confederates signed up to fight the war for social status; they didn’t benefit financially from the war Lincoln wanted to rebuild the South even before the war was over th th th 13 , 14 , and 15 amendments added to the Constitution from 1865 till about 1870 Amendments legally changed everything for the e better for the former slaves Outbreak of violence in the south (Jim Crow laws, KKK) Plessy v. Ferguson Prior to the court case, every state and local government passed hundreds of racial segregations laws throughout the south o They were not federal laws o The laws went to the supreme court and were tested Homer Plessy: a man of *Creole descent who refuse to sit in the back section of the train in New Orleans; takes the case to court Supreme court rules that Jim Crow laws are valid; makes them constitutional o Separate but equal Significance: th th th Sanctioned racism on the federal level; contradicted the 13 , 14 and 15 amendments, and defeated the whole point of the civil war Supreme court was no longer on the side of Civil Rights Sharecropping Black people worked the farms of a rich white man and accumulate so much debt by the end of the year that they couldn’t repay, and they are owned by the farm owner Southerners who couldn’t get a job moved westward Connection of railroads allowed for mass Westward migration 1862: Congress gave away free land to help settlement in the west (160 acres) and passed the Homestead Act; the land was very dangerous 1869: Indians living out west were some of the most violent in the history of the Americas o Sioux Indians were expert horsemen and had guns Boomtown – town that grows overnight Cattle – flat land was perfect for cattle herding; barbed wire was a very important invention Sioux Nation Many union troops stationed out West during the civil war Sand Creek Massacre 700 drunk U.S. soldiers massacred an Indian tribe, mostly women and children Sioux Indians symbolize resistance to removal o Sioux lifestyle was completely centered around the buffalo Buffalo hunts were organized to get rid of them 1874: Gold is discovered in Dakota territories o White and Indians fight for two years before the U.S. Army intervenes (and removes the Indians) Battle of Little Bighorn Led by Colonel George A. Custer, who was undefeated by the Confederacy Custer has 500 men, and goes up against 1000 Sioux warriors without reinforcement The only people who thought the Indians were savages were the ones who wanted the land the Indians lived on Helen Hunt Jackson Published “A Century of Dishonor” in 1881 She wanted her book to be the “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” of the Natives The book recounts a century of the government’s mistreatment and abuse of the Indians Dawes Act A legislation passed in 1887; it was named after Henry Dawes who proposed the bill It became known as the Homestead Act of the Indians Its goal was to Americanize the Indians once and for all It divided the land the Indians lived on into 160 acre plots of land and each family was assigned one plot to live on The Indians were taught English, children were sent to school, and boys cut their hair Dawes Act got rid of and disregarded Indian traditions The Indians lost most of their land in the Act Significance: Indian culture continuously collapsed under the legislation Indians killed each other; alcoholism and suicide rates increase tremendously; there was a lot of intertribal and trans tribal violence The legislation was a complete failure It was a very important precedence to American foreign policy Was exercised with genuine interest By the late 1800s, many Native Americans gave up fighting because they knew they couldn’t win Ghost Dancers: A huge revitalization movement in the 1800s Indians reembraced their culture Ghost dancers: did a dance they believed gave them certain powers, and wore ghost shirts because they believed they would protect them from bullets They rejected American culture; grew their hair, wore their traditional clothes Wounded Knee Massacre U.s soldiers sent to stop ghost dancers at the reservation There is confrontation between the Indians and soldiers and someone’s gun goes off; the soldiers retreat Other soldiers fire at Indians with machine guns; of 350 Indians, 200 are killed There is no more Indian resistance afterwards