Biology Week 2/16/16
Biology Week 2/16/16 20146
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by email@example.com Notetaker on Friday February 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 20146 at Indiana University of Pennsylvania taught by Robert Major in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Principles of Cellular and Molecular Biology in Biology at Indiana University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 02/19/16
Week of 2/16/16 Tuesday Energy Catalysis 1) Metabolism a. Metabolism: sum of all chemical reactions the cell needs to survive, grow and reproduce i. Anabolism: biosynthetic “building up” ii. Catabolism: “breaking down” b. Food molecules are oxidized i. Removal of electrons from an atom ii. Reduction: addition of electrons to an atom iii. Cellular respiration/photosynthesis c. Cells use specialized molecules to carry electrons i. NADH ii. NADPH iii. FADH2 2) Laws of Thermodynamics a. Energy cannot be created or destroyed. i. Sun energy sugar (stored) ii. Metabolism pathways: series of enzymes catalyzed reactions b. The state of disorder of the universe will increase over time i. Entropy: measure of disorder ii. Disorder drives action iii. Creating disorder releases energy 1. Happens spontaneously 3) Biological molecules have energy. a. Energy stored in the bonds i. Molecules vibrate, rotate and move through space b. The lower energy state is more stable. i. Throwing water in the air and it becomes sphere shaped more disorder c. Free energy (G): useful energy in system i. Reactions occur spontanseously if the change in G is negative ii. ΔG=G fina-Ginitalhange in G is positive (energy in) change in G is negative (energy out) d. Favorable and unfavorable reactions can be coupled. i. CD has negative G (-13) ii. XY has positive G (+5) 4) ATP a. The hydrolysis of ATP-ADP (G negative) is energetically favorable i. Bonds are high energy ii. ADP-ATP (G positive) Enzymes 1) Catalysts a. Enzymes: catalysts that increase reactions b. Activation energy: energy barrier require to get a reaction started i. Enzymes lower AE for catalyzed reactions c. Feedback inhibition: form of pathway regulation i. Shuts production down when there’s too much product turns enzyme of d. Competitive inhibitor: binds to and blocks the active site i. Mimic substrate e. Examples: Treatments that block the active site can be good. i. Gleevec inhibits the active site of an enzyme (abl) that causes leukemia f. Non-competitive inhibitors: do not bind to the site; bind to an allosteric site and change the shape of the enzyme i. Increase concentration of enzyme to inhibit the NCl Cellular Respiration Introduction to Metabolism 1) Cellular Respiration a. Process by which cells extract the energy in food molecules, includes the uptake of O and2the release of CO . 2 b. Directly burying sugar releases energy in the form of heat. i. Done in small steps ii. Energy captured inside activated carriers (ATP and NADH) 2) Stages of Metabolism a. Digestion: larger polymers are broken down to subunits in the digestive system b. Glycolysis: breakdown of glucose into pyruvate c. Citric Acid Cycle: acetyl CoA is added to oxaloacetate to form citrate, which is later oxidized 3) Glycolysis a. Occurs in the cytoplasm i. Not inside mitochondria b. Glucose is a 6-carbon molecule split into two 3-carbon pyruvates i. Two parallel pathways c. Two “net” ATP molecules are formed i. 2 ATP used, 4 ATP produced (4-2=2), 2 net ATP ii. Substrate-level phosphorylation: The transfer of a phosphate group to ADP, directly from a substrate molecule, to form ATP d. Two NADH molecules are produced. i. NADH: produced by reactions catalyzed ii. NADH is a carrier of protons and electrons iii. NAD + H -2e =NADH iv. Eventually traded in for ATP in oxygen-dependent reactions 1. Can ONLY happen with oxygen e. Pyruvate can be used to produce ATP w/out oxygen i. Converted to lactic acid or ethanol through fermentation 1. Small amounts of ATP 2. NAD+ is regenerated 4) Citric Acid Cycle a. CAC occurs within the mitochondrial matrix. i. Pyruvate is pumped in b/c it is too large/too charged b. Carboxylic acid groups can leave as Carbon Dioxide c. One 3-carbon pyruvate is turned into one 2-carbon Acetyl CoA i. Third carbon is waste in the form of CO2 d. 2-carbons+4-carbons=6-carbons i. Citric acid has 3 carboxylic acid groups e. Two CO are lost to make another 4 carbon molecule 2 f. 3 NADH are formed for each turn i. 1 FADH 2or each turn g. One GTP is produced for each turn i. GTPATP h. Two turns per glucose i. Each of the two pyruvates will enter the cycle i. Glycolysis and CAC provide precursors for other molecules 5) Electron Transport Chain a. Occurs in inner mitochondrial membrane i. Inner foldings, cristae, of a mitochondria create surface area b. NADH and FADH give2up their electrons to carriers i. O is the “final electron acceptor” ii. Water is formed c. Electron movement provides the energy to pump protons. i. Protons build up and rush d. ATP Synthase uses the proton gradient to synthesize ATP i. Chemiosmosis: coupling of proton movement in order to drive ATP bond formation e. Oxidative phosphorylation: Oxygen is consumed as ADP is phosphorylated to make ATP i. Unfavorablehard to makepositive G ii. O is consumed as ADPATP f. One glucose is oxidized to produce 30 ATPs
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