First set of notes following exam 1
First set of notes following exam 1 chem 10061-001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Matthew Goetz on Saturday February 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to chem 10061-001 at Kent State University taught by David bowers in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see general chemistry 2 in Chemistry at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 02/20/16
Gen Chem 2: First Set of Notes Following Exam Mixture: Contains more than one substance. Solution: Colloid: A heterogeneous mixture that has multiple phases to it. Solubility (s): Max amount of solute that will dissolve at a given temperature. Intermolecular forces determine solubility, for the ion dipole forces of the solvent must overcome to lattice energy of the salt for it to be soluble. Substances with similar IF’s dissolve each other: Like Dissolves Like - Polar dissolves polar: - Nonpolar dissolves nonpolar - Polar dissolves ionic (usually……) IF’s usually involved in dissolution of a compound are ion-dipole and H- bonding. Some molecules, like alcohols, have dual polarity. This means that they have a polar end and a nonpolar end, so certain parts of the molecule may dissolve polar molecules and certain parts may dissolve nonpolar molecules. Further elaboration on “like dissolves like”: - Heat of Solution (ΔHsolution) is often involved. - ΔHsolution = ΔHsolute + ΔHsolvent + ΔHmixture - Charge density also has a part in this process. Heat of Hydration: - ΔHsolvation = ΔHsolvent + ΔHmixture - Change in enthalpy as a result of hydrating a solute. - ΔHsolution = ΔHsolute + Δhydration If an salt dissolves in H2O then ΔHsolute = Δlattice energy So, with all of this information, we may substitute equations and deduce that: - ΔHsolution= ΔHlattice + ΔHhydration ( the hydration forces will be negative) - If the lattice energy is a greater number then the substance won’t dissolve. - If the hydration forces are greater then it will dissolve. Charge Density: Ratio of charge to volume. - The higher the charge density the higher the ΔHhydration. - Smaller, more charge ions are examples. - This matters more for cations, for anions are so large. Entropy (s) : Kinetic energy of the random motion of particles. - This is favored in the universe. - Also a very important factor in determining solubility. - If ΔS is negative then the reaction is endothermic, which is the opposite of ΔH. - This is explained because the universe favors entropy, to make entropy less, or ΔS smaller, then energy must be added to go against the universe’s normal state. Solution equilibrium: Solute is dissolving at the same rate as it recrystallizes. Increasing temperature = increased solubility. But, gases are less soluble in increased temperatures… - Due to increased temp causes gas molecules to escape IF’s. Increasing pressure greatly increased gas solubility but has no effect on solids or liquids. Henry’s Law: Sgas = kH x Pgas. Shows the relationship between pressure and solubility of gas. - Sgas is solubility of gas ( mol/L) - kH is Henry’s law constant - Pgas is partial pressure of the gas above the solution. Extensive properties: Depend on quantity, like mass, volume, and shape. Intensive properties: Don’t depend on quantity, like color, density, BP and MP.
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