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First set of notes following exam 1

by: Matthew Goetz

First set of notes following exam 1 chem 10061-001

Marketplace > Kent State University > Chemistry > chem 10061-001 > First set of notes following exam 1
Matthew Goetz
GPA 3.925

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These amazing notes cover the beginning of chapter 13. I left out all of the major equations that we have learned because I couldn't have done them any justice without adding example problems which...
general chemistry 2
David bowers
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Matthew Goetz on Saturday February 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to chem 10061-001 at Kent State University taught by David bowers in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see general chemistry 2 in Chemistry at Kent State University.


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Date Created: 02/20/16
Gen Chem 2: First Set of Notes Following Exam  Mixture: Contains more than one substance.  Solution:  Colloid: A heterogeneous mixture that has multiple phases to it.  Solubility (s): Max amount of solute that will dissolve at a given temperature.   Intermolecular forces determine solubility, for the ion dipole forces of the solvent must overcome to lattice energy of the salt for it to be soluble.  Substances with similar IF’s dissolve each other: Like Dissolves Like - Polar dissolves polar: - Nonpolar dissolves nonpolar - Polar dissolves ionic (usually……)  IF’s usually involved in dissolution of a compound are ion-dipole and H- bonding.  Some molecules, like alcohols, have dual polarity. This means that they have a polar end and a nonpolar end, so certain parts of the molecule may dissolve polar molecules and certain parts may dissolve nonpolar molecules.  Further elaboration on “like dissolves like”: - Heat of Solution (ΔHsolution) is often involved. - ΔHsolution = ΔHsolute + ΔHsolvent + ΔHmixture - Charge density also has a part in this process.  Heat of Hydration: - ΔHsolvation = ΔHsolvent + ΔHmixture - Change in enthalpy as a result of hydrating a solute. - ΔHsolution = ΔHsolute + Δhydration  If an salt dissolves in H2O then ΔHsolute = Δlattice energy  So, with all of this information, we may substitute equations and deduce that: - ΔHsolution= ΔHlattice + ΔHhydration ( the hydration forces will be negative) - If the lattice energy is a greater number then the substance won’t dissolve. - If the hydration forces are greater then it will dissolve.  Charge Density: Ratio of charge to volume. - The higher the charge density the higher the ΔHhydration. - Smaller, more charge ions are examples. - This matters more for cations, for anions are so large.  Entropy (s) : Kinetic energy of the random motion of particles. - This is favored in the universe. - Also a very important factor in determining solubility. - If ΔS is negative then the reaction is endothermic, which is the opposite of ΔH. - This is explained because the universe favors entropy, to make entropy less, or ΔS smaller, then energy must be added to go against the universe’s normal state.  Solution equilibrium: Solute is dissolving at the same rate as it recrystallizes.  Increasing temperature = increased solubility.  But, gases are less soluble in increased temperatures… - Due to increased temp causes gas molecules to escape IF’s.  Increasing pressure greatly increased gas solubility but has no effect on solids or liquids.  Henry’s Law: Sgas = kH x Pgas. Shows the relationship between pressure and solubility of gas. - Sgas is solubility of gas ( mol/L) - kH is Henry’s law constant - Pgas is partial pressure of the gas above the solution.  Extensive properties: Depend on quantity, like mass, volume, and shape.  Intensive properties: Don’t depend on quantity, like color, density, BP and MP.


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