Bio 1009 Lecture Notes
Bio 1009 Lecture Notes bio 1009
U of M
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by veronicaturtu on Saturday February 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to bio 1009 at University of Minnesota taught by Cheryl in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see General biology in Biology at University of Minnesota.
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Date Created: 02/20/16
Bio lecture 9 2162016 Photosynthesis LAST LECTURE ON MIDTERM Breakdown reaction catabolic reactions of glucose Synthesizing anabolic reaction Takes place in the quotgreen materialquot Oxygen and C02 goes in and out of small pores under leaves Chloroplast is a double membrane structure Bacterium has similar function PFOCESS Light reactions are powered by light and electrons come from splitting of water Used in Calvin cycle where is takes three cycles to get a 3carbon molecule to be used Chloroplast has emergent properties Light is a type of electromagnetic radiation that moves in waves 0 Short waves higher energy vice versa 0 Pigments can absorb light Structure Chloroplasts are located in the thylakoid membrane 0 Photosystem has light harvesting complexes that are embedded in proteins 0 Light hits pigments and energy from that exposure reaches special acceptors Redox reaction transferring electronshave different association Hydrophobic tails and hydrophilic head 0 Linear electron ow 0 Movement that produces energy 0 Excites electrons that go down an ETC 0 Reduce NAD to NADPH 0 Production of ATP and NADPH Cyclic Electron Cycle 0 Only uses photosystem 1 0 Only ATP is made Products of light reaction go to the Calvin Cycle Mitochondria and chloroplasts make ATP by chemiosmosis KNOW ribulose bisphosphate RuBP amp Rubisco Rubisco will take excess oxygen and make products that are not used in the Calvin Cycle Photorespiration Rubisco and two substrates Carbon molecule goes to be releases a C02 Making carbon that can go onto the Calvin Cycle without increasing sugars Bad because makes excess molecules and takes away from the Calvin Cycle C3 Photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplasts C4 Plants c When there is a structural change in plant leaf Concentrating about of C02 that the Calvin cycle sees so it uses C02 instead of oxygen and gets photosynthesis Crassulacean Acid Metabolism Plants Stomata are open at night for plants to absorb the moisture in the air 0 Counter acting drying out of plants Lecture 10 2182016 Mitosis An organized and regulated process that equally divides the genetic material from the nucleus of a parent cell into new progeny cells each progeny nucleus receives a full set of chromosomes 0 Component of cell cycle part of cell division Interphase alternates with mitosis Gl amp 62 are involved in growth of cells and increase of organelles S is very the genetic material is duplicated Cytokinesis is the separation of the cytoplasm Interphase 0 Can39t distinguish the chromatin Sphase o Replication of the chromosomes 0 Duplication sister chromatids that are identical 0 Each replication there is a shortening at the end of the chromosome DNA can only add at the 3prime end primer is required to add nucleotides 0 Somatic cells there are telomeres that protect the ends of chromosomes from being degraded Prophase 0 First stage of mitosis 0 Genetic material starts to condense into special shapes 0 Spinal apparatus is formed Prometaphase 0 Nuclear envelop breaks down to microtubules interaction with chromosomes at the centromere there is a protein structure called the kinetochore Metaphase o Microtubules line chromosomes up on the metaphase plate Anaphase 0 Sister chromosomes are pulled apart Telophase 0 Nuclear envelop begins to reform Cytokinesis forming cell walls and plasma membrane separation of two cells Poid how much genetic material is in the cells haploid one set of chromosome unpaired egg amp sperm diploid two sets of chromosomes homologous paired quotpartnersquot same order of genes just different alleles Why do cells divide To repair cells produce more cells to account for size haploid cells fuse and form zygote which splits into more cells so it can39t grow reproduction Factors that in uence a cell39s ability to divide external signals chemical physical presence of a substrate cell size internal signals Why do we study cell division in uences disease such as cancer TEST REVIEW
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