Anatomy Lecture 2-19-2016 (ANAT 3601)
Anatomy Lecture 2-19-2016 (ANAT 3601) ANAT 3001
U of M
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by veronicaturtu on Saturday February 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANAT 3001 at University of Minnesota taught by Barnett, Vincent; Cook, Mark in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy in Anatomy at University of Minnesota.
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Date Created: 02/20/16
Anatomy Lecture 2.19.2016 Nervous Tissue Structural organization: central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) & peripheral nervous system (cranial nerves, spinal nerves, and ganglia) o Sensory neurons are also called afferents- nerves info Sensory info pours into brain and spinal cord Relay info from skin, eyes, ears, tongue, and organs o Motor neurons are also called efferents Motor sends out Effect: skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and glands Somatic motor system effects skeletal or voluntary muscles Autonomic motor system effects cardiac muscle, smooth muscle and glands (which are involuntary) Cells of the nervous system o Neurons—function unit (send impulses and bring in/relay sensation to brain); receive and send through “tree branches” Cell body (soma)- organelles and nucleus; makes decisions once receives info from dendrites Dendrites- bring info to cell body Axon- single; wrapped by bundles of insulation; carries impulses away from the cell body Axon hillock Synaptic terminals- branches of axon Structural classification of neurons::: Bipolar neurons are specialized for taste, vision, hearing, balance, and smell (single dendrite and axon) (Pseudo-)Unipolar neuron are sensory neurons in the PNS, mainly found carrying info/sensation from the skin (single dendrite- embedded in skin- with dendritic process, axonal process- sends info to spinal cord- and single axon, short single process, act like bipolar) Multipolar neurons are motor neurons of the CNS and PNS and also function as interneurons; multiple dendrites; skeletal muscle Functional classification Sensory “afferent” neurons Receptors for touch, pressure, pain Cell bodies in posterior root ganglion (collection of cell bodies outside the spinal cord) Central process carries sensation to CAN Motor “efferent” neurons Cell bodies in CNS Axons carry impulses muscles and glands (effector) Can be multipolar Interneurons = “associated neurons” Receive impulses from sensory neurons and “decide” what to do with it They facilitate communication between sensory and motor neurons Can be multipolar o Interneurons—conduct impulses ^^^ o Glial Cells(neuroglia)—CANNOT conduct impulse, they are a support system Found in PNS and CNS Smaller than neurons Capable of cell division They protect, nourish and provide supporting network for neurons There are many more glial cells than neurons There are numerous types with various functions (FOUR TYPES) In CNS----- Astrocytes- blood brain barrier, regulates tissue fluid composition, fill space from dead neurons, provide structural network, can directly influence function of neurons with calcium release which can cause neurons in the area to depolarize (helps form memories), motor what can enter and leave Ependymal cells- Lines the ventricles of the brain, helps form choroid plexus (for production of CSF), nutrients for the brain from the inside Microglial cells- small cells, wander through CNS and “clean up” through phagocytosis Oligodendrocyte- insulated to prevent impulses from falling out and increases the speed; charge at rest compare inside to outside is negative, sodium leads to positive charge on outside; cell body opens up channels to let sodium in o Saltatory Conduction- myelin sheath can help speed up process; nodes of Ranvier allows reverse of polarity at naked parts
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