BSC216 week of 2/15 notes
BSC216 week of 2/15 notes 216
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexandra on Saturday February 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 216 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Jason Pienaar in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology II Lecture in Biological Sciences at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 02/20/16
Endocrine pt 2 02/16/2016 ▯ Describe the gross anatomy of the thyroid and parathyroid glands Thyroid gland o Largest endocrine gland o Two lobes joined by an anterior isthmus o Rich blood supply Parathyroid glands o 3-5 glands embedded in posterior thymus ▯ Describe the cells that produce thyroid hormone and calcitonin Parafollicular cells (produce calcitonin) o Outside of follicle cells o Released when blood calcium level is too high Chief cells (parathyroid hormone) Thyroid follicles containing colloid (thyroid hormone precursor) Secrete thyroxin (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3) ▯ Describe the stimulus for release, target tissue and effect of thyroid and parathyroid hormones Thyroid Calcitonin Parathyroid hormones (T3 & hormone T4) Release Thyrotropin Hypercalcemia Hypercalcemia stimulus stimulating hormone (TSH) from anterior pituitary Target tissue Nearly all body Osteoclasts in Bone, Kidneys, cells bone Intestines Effect Sets basal Inhibits bone Inhibits bone metabolic rate resorption resorption Promotes growth Increases calcium & development ion absorption in Synergism with kidneys Sympathetic Increases dietary nervous system calcium absorption Describe the gross and microscopic anatomy of the cortex and medulla of the adrenal glands Adrenal gland sits on kidney Layers of adrenal gland: adrenal cortex (including capsule) and adrenal medulla o Cortex Capsule Zona glomerulosa Mineralocorticoids Zona fasciculate Glucocorticoids & adrenogenic steroids Zona reticularis Glucocorticoids & adrenogenic steroids Adrenal medulla neuroendocrine ▯ Describe the stimulus for release, target tissue and effects of the mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids secreted by the adrenal cortex Mineralocorticoids Glucocortocoids (e.g. (e.g. Aldosterone) Cortisol) Release stimulus Elevated blood K+ Adrenocorticotropic Decrease in blood pH hormone Angiotensin II Stress hormone Adrenocorticotropic hormone Target tissue Kidney tubules liver, muscle, Adipose tissue (most body cells) Effect Increases Na+ ion Gluconeogenesis in retention directly liver H2O retention Release of amino acids indirectly from muscle tissue Increases K+ and H+ Release of fatty acids ion loss in urine from adipose tissue Regulates blood Anti-inflammatory pressure agent ▯ How is the adrenal medulla functionally related to the sympathetic nervous division Stimulated by: acetylcholine released by preganglionic, sympathetic neurons Chromaffin cells: endocrine cells derived from nervous tissue, post ganglionic neurons Secrete: catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinephrine) into blood stream Enable: wide spread sympathetic response ▯ Describe the structure of the endocrine pancreas and its hormone secreting cells Covered by Acinar cells Islets of Langerhans contains o Alpha cells (glucagon) o Beta cells (insulin) o Delta cells (somatostatin) ▯ Describe the stimulus for release, target tissue and effects of glucagon and insulin Glucagon Insulin Release stimulus Decrease in blood Adrenocorticotropic glucose hormone Sympathetic stimulation Stress Circulating catecholamines Target tissue Liver, muscle, adipose Liver, cardiac & skeletal tissue muscle & parts of the brain Effect Promotes actions that Stimulates uptake of increase blood glucose lipids, amino acids and levels glucose from blood Synthesis of glycogen in liver Synthesis of adipose tissue from fatty acids Promotes satiety ▯ What are the causes, symptoms and treatments of the two types of diabetes mellitus Hypoglycemia: low blood glucose Hyperglycemia: high blood glucose o Often caused by Diabetes mellitus Type 1: pancreas fails to produce enough insulin Causes: immune system destroys Beta cells Symptoms: constant hunger, glucosuria, polyuria, polydipsia Treatment: insulin injection Type 2: body cells fail to respond to insulin Causes: heredity and/or obesity Symptoms: similar to type 1 Treatment: lifestyle changes, oral hypoglycemics ▯ Describe the major functions of the lymphatic system Fluid recovery o Capillaries reabsorb 85% of interstitial fluid, other 15% recovered by lymphatic system Lipid absorption o Lacteals (specialized lymph vessels) absorb dietary lipids from sm. intestine Immunity o Recovered fluid evaluated by immune cells concentrated in lymph nodes o Some lymphoid organs aid in leukocyte maturation ▯ Compare and contrast lymphatic vessels to blood vessels in terms of structure and function Lymph flows in lymphatic vessels o Similarities to blood vessels Similar to veins Bud from veins in developing embryo Low pressure system Lymphatic valves (like venous valves) One way flow – towards heart Often lodged between skeletal muscles Smooth muscle in collecting vessels Difference from blood vessels Lymphatic capillaries are blind ended Endothelial cells are NOT tightly joined (can flap open and closed) ▯ Describe lymph formation and trace lymph circulation through the body Similar to blood plasma (less proteins) Originates in tissue fluid Contains o Lipids (if coming from lacteals) o Hormones, macrophages, bacteria, viruses, cellular debri Capillariescollecting vesselstrunks (9)ducts (2)subclavian veins Lymphatic capillaries o Associated with capillary beds & loose connective tissue o Thin layer of overlapping endothelial cells (roof tiles) o Tethered to surrounding tissue by protein filaments o No tight junctions, highly porous o Overlapping edges act like valves (inward pressure opens, outward pressure closes) Lymphatic collection vessels o Travel alongside veins & arteries (share common connective tissue sheath) o Empty into lymph nodes at irregular intervals o Lymph flow One way valves Skeletal muscles squeezing vessels Arterial pulsation in shared sheath Thoracic pump (diaphragm action) Rapidly flowing blood in subclavian veins draws lymph into them Trunks (9) o Right/Left jugular o Right/Left subclavian o Right/Left bronchomediastinal o Right/Left lumbar o Intestinal Ducts (2) o Right lymphatic Lymphatic trunks empty here o Thoracic o Ducts empty into the subclavian veins ▯ Describe and relate the cellular composition of lymphatic tissue to the overall function of the lymphatic system Cells of lymphatic system are all involved in defense & immunity o Some loosely scattered in tissues o Respiratory, digestive, urinary & reproductive tracts Mucosa associates Lymphoid Tissue (MALT), Peyers patches o Some concentrated in lymphoid organs Red bone marrow, thymus, lymph nodes, tonsils, appendix & spleen Cellular composition is similar in lymphoid tissues & organs o Macrophages Develop from monocytes in blood stream Phagocytosis Antigen-presenting cells o Reticular fibers o B & T lymphocytes T lymphocytes Distinguished from other lymphocytes by presence of T-cell receptor in membrane Mature in Thymus (hence T) Differentiate into various types of T cell B lymphocytes Differentiate into plasma cells that secrete antibodies Derived from bone marrow (hence B) o Dendritic cells Branched, mobile antigen presenting cells Found in epidermis, mucous membranes and lymphatic organs Engulf foreign matter by receptor mediated endocytosis, migrate to lymph nodes, present fragments to immune system o Reticular cells Branched, stationary antigen presenting cells Part of CT stroma of lymphatic organs Engulf foreign matter by receptor mediated endocytosis, present fragments to lymphatic organ cells o (natural killer cells) (large lymphocytes that destroy bacteria, transplanted tissues and infected or cancerous host cells) ▯ Describe the structure and function of the lymphoid organs Separated from surround tissue by CT capsules (basis for classification as organs) Primary lymphatic organs o Sites where B & T cells become immunocompetent o Red bone marrow (B cells) & thymus (T cells) Secondary lymphatic organs o Mature immunocompetent cells migrate to these organs o Lymph nodes, tonsils & spleen Adipose cells o Replace reticulocytes with aging Sinusoidal capillaries o Large gaps to allow cells to enter blood stream Erythrocytes Megakaryocytes o Platelets breaking off into blood stream Reticular cells o Part of stroma-secrete colony forming factors All formed elements produced in red marrow Thymus gland o Part of endocrine, lymphatic & immune systems o Bilobed organ between sternum & aortic arch o Plays crucial role in T lymphocyte development o Exhibits massive involution during development Thymus lobules o Reticular epithelial cells Surround developing T lymphocytes Form a thymus blood barrier o T lymphocytes Develop in cortex, migrate to medulla o Immunocompetent T lymphocytes Exposed to, and enter blood in medulla o Dendritic cells Mobile antigen presenting cells o Thymic corpuscles (reticular cell whorls) Identify thymus tissue o Reticular epithelial cells of medullae More widely spaced, no thymus blood barrier o Lymph nodes ▯
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