New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Chapter 5 notes: Global Temperatures

by: Alexandra Reshetova

Chapter 5 notes: Global Temperatures Geog 1112

Marketplace > Georgia State University > Geography > Geog 1112 > Chapter 5 notes Global Temperatures
Alexandra Reshetova
GPA 4.0

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Hope these help!
Aneela Qureshi (P)
Class Notes
25 ?





Popular in Geography

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexandra Reshetova on Saturday February 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Geog 1112 at Georgia State University taught by Aneela Qureshi (P) in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 67 views. For similar materials see INTRO TO WEATHER & CLIMATE in Geography at Georgia State University.


Reviews for Chapter 5 notes: Global Temperatures


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/20/16
Chapter 5: Global Temperature Notes  Apparent Temperature = outdoor temperature as it is perceived by people  Humidity = water vapor content of air  Wind-Chill Factor = measures the enhanced rate at which heat is lost to the air 1. Wind Speed increases = heat loss from skin increases; wind-chill factor goes up  Wind-Chill Temperature Index = uses wind speed and air temperature to figure out apparent temperature (made by the National Weather Service) 1. Goal of chart = evaluate the danger freezing temperatures and winter winds pose to people  Lower Wind Chill = freezing hazard; frostbite; hypothermia (people lose heat faster than their bodies can make it) Temperature Concepts and Measurement  Heat = form of energy; moves among particles in a system or substance by means of kinetic energy  A hotter substance = has molecules that move with a greater energy  More heat = more energy  Temperature = not a form of energy; related to the amount of energy in a substance  Temperature = measure of the average kinetic energy of individual molecules in matter; measure of heat  Heat transfer = a change in temperature Temperature Scales  Absolute Zero (0 absolute temperature) = the temperature where molecular and atomic motion in matter totally stop  Absolute Zero in Celsius = -273 degrees  Absolute Zero in Fahrenheit = -59.4 degrees  Absolute Zero in Kelvin = 0 degrees  Daniel G. Fahrenheit (German physicist) = the Fahrenheit scale is named for him  Melting Point of ice in Fahrenheit = 32 degrees  Ice = contains only one melting point  Boiling Point of water in Fahrenheit = 212 degrees  Water = contains many freezing points  Anders Celsius (Swedish Astronomer) = made the Celsius scale  Celsius Scale = used by most countries; USA uses Fahrenheit  Melting Point of ice in Celsius = zero  Boiling Temperature of water at sea level = 100 degree  Lord Kelvin (British physicist) = proposed Kelvin scale  Kelvin scale = science use this because it begins at absolute zero  Melting Point for ice in Kelvin = 273 K  Boiling Point for water in Kelvin = 373 K  The size of 1 Kelvin unit = the same size as 1 Celsius degree Measuring Temperature  Thermometer = measures temperature  Mercury and Alcohol Thermometers = used to measure outdoor temperatures  Earth’s colder climates = alcohol temperatures preferred  Official temperature measurements = made in the shade  Thermistor = measures temperature by sensing the electrical resistance of a semiconducting material  A goal of the Global Climate Observing System = make a reference network of one station per 250,000 km^2 across the globe  Land- Surface Temperature (LST) = the heating of the land surface’ often much hotter than air temperature; record the heating of the ground from insolation and other heat flows  LST = higher in dry environments with clear skies and surfaces with low albedo  Three expressions of temperature: 1. Daily Mean Temperature 2. Monthly Mean Temperature 3. Annual Temperature Range Principle Temperature Controls  Insolation = most important influence on temperature variations  Effects of human activity = changing some natural controls on temperature (latitude, altitude and elevation, cloud cover, and land-water heating differences)  Soot = cause of warming temperatures Latitude  Subsolar Point = the latitude where the Sun is directly overhead at noon  Insolation more intense = between tropics  At higher latitudes = sun is never directly overhead during the year  Intensity of the sun’s radiation= decreases away from equator and toward the poles  Daylength = varies with latitude  Seasonal effect of latitude on temperature are driven by two factors: 1. Sun angle 2. Daylength Altitude and Elevation  Within troposphere = temperatures do down as altitude goes up; density also decreases  Normal Lapse Rate = 6.4 degrees Celsius/1000m  Atmosphere thins = has less sensible heat  Mountainous Areas = experience lower temperatures than regions near the sea level  Altitude = airborne objects or heights above Earth’s surface  Elevation = the height of a point on Earth’s surface above some plane of reference  High Elevations experience = cooler air temperatures, greater nighttime cooling, temperature range between night and day is greater  Snow Line = lower limit of permanent snow and shows where winter snowfall surpasses the amount of snow lost through summer melting and evaporation Cloud Cover  50% of earth = covered by clouds  Dawn = coldest time of the day  Night = clouds are insulating (reradiating longwave energy back to Earth)  Clouds = raise minimum nighttime temperatures  Day = reflect sun’s radiation; lower daily maximum temperatures  Clouds also decrease seasonal temperature differences Land-Water Heating Differences  Water bodies = more moderate temperature patterns  Continental Interiors = more temperature extremes  Land = heats and cools faster than water Evaporation  Disperses a lot of the energy that comes at the ocean’s surface  84% evaporation = from the oceans  Surface Water evaporates = absorbs energy from the environment (results in lowering of temperatures)  Land temperatures = effected less by evaporative cooling Transparency  Light that hits the surface is absorbed  When light reaches a body of water = it penetrates the surface  Below surfaces = temperatures remain the same  Water’s transparency = water is clear, and light passes through it to an average depth of 60m in the ocean Specific Heat  The heat capacity of a substance  Water = can hold more heat  Specific Heat of Water = about four times that of soil  Day to Day temperatures near water = moderated rather than containing big extremes Movement  Movement of currents = a mixing of cooler and warmer waters and it spreads the energy  Surface water and deeper waters mix as well to distribute the energy again in a vertical direction  Ocean and land surfaces = radiate longwave radiation at night  Land = looses energy more quickly Ocean Currents and Sea-Surface Temperatures  Cool ocean currents (coming toward the equator) = make air temperatures less extreme (on land); this happens along subtropical and midlatitude west coasts of continents  Gulf Stream = warm current; travels northward off the east coast of North America  Water vapor content of air increases = ability for air to absorb longwave radiation increases  Warm ocean and air = more evaporation occurs (increase in the water vapor coming into the air)  Sea-Surface Temperature = SST  Western Pacific Warm Pool = temperatures are often above 30 degrees Celsius Examples of Marine Effects and Continental Effects  Marine Effect (maritime effect) = the moderating influences of the ocean and normally happens in locations along coastlines or on islands  Continental Effect (condition of continentality) = the biggest range between maximum and minimum temperatures on both a daily and a yearly basis that happens in locations that are inland (from the ocean) or distant from other big water bodies Earth’s Temperature Patterns  Isotherm = an isoline that connects points of equal temperature to show the temperature pattern  Isoline = a line along which there is a constant value January and July Global Temperature Maps  January in Southern hemisphere = high sun altitude and longer days cause summer weather conditions  January in Northern hemisphere = lower sun altitudes and short days cause winter weather conditions  Thermal Equator = an isotherm connecting all points of highest mean temperature  July in Northern Hemisphere = isotherms shift towards the poles over land  Hottest places in Northern Hemisphere in July = deserts (examples – Sonoran Desert of North America, the Lut Desert in Iran) January and July Polar-Region Temperature Maps  North Polar Region = an ocean surrounded by land  South Polar Region = big Antarctic ice sheet surrounded by ocean  Antarctica summer = December and January  Antarctica = Earth’s highest and coldest region  Arctic ocean summer = July  July in Antarctica = nights are 24 hours long Annual Temperature Range Map  Subpolar Locations within the continental interiors of Asia and North America= largest average annual temperature ranges  Southern Hemisphere = smaller temperature ranges (show less seasonal temperature variation)  Continental Effects = the Northern Hemisphere  Marine Effects = the Southern Hemisphere Recent Temperature Trends and Human Response  Global Temperatures = went up an average of .17 degrees Celsius (per decade) (1970 and up)  Heat waves = on the rise Record Temperatures and Greenhouse Warming  Temperature Anomaly = an irregularity or difference located by differentiating recorded average annual temperature against the long-term average yearly temperature for a time period chosen as the baseline  Baseline = base period  Trend on the maps from 1970s to 2000s = above average temperatures  Human Activities = increase atmospheric greenhouse gases  Human Action = forces climate change  Global warming and global climate change = not the same  Climate Change = surrounds all effects of atmospheric warming (effects – relate to humidity and vary with location Heat Stress and the Heat Index  Heat Wave = a lengthy period of abnormally high temperatures (sometimes related with weather that is humid)  Human Body Temperature = within 36.8 degrees Celsius  Body temperature lower = in cold weather and in the morning  Body temperature higher = during work or exercise and emotional situations  Amount of Water Vapor high = relative humidity is high  A Heat Index shows temperatures and relative humidity  Heat Stress = the risk of heat-related illness  Examples of Heat Stress in People = heat stroke, heat exhaustion, and heat cramps


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.