New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

CJC 102 Week 5 Notes

by: Ben O'Brien

CJC 102 Week 5 Notes CJC 102

Ben O'Brien
GPA 3.697

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes cover Situational Choice, Routine Activities, and Deterrence Theory
Introduction to criminology
Dr. Intravia
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Introduction to criminology

Popular in Criminal Justice

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ben O'Brien on Saturday February 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CJC 102 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Intravia in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Introduction to criminology in Criminal Justice at Ball State University.

Similar to CJC 102 at BSU


Reviews for CJC 102 Week 5 Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/20/16
Situational Choice Theory  Variation of rational choice theory  Argues that the decision to engage in crime is shaped by the situational constraints and opportunities  Situations vary according to time, location, personal circumstances who is present, and what is going on  Crime is an interaction between two factors: o Motivation – temptation, bad influences, idleness, or provocation o Opportunity – financial rewards, knowledge of criminal techniques, and personal experiences Routine Activities Theory  Variation of rational choice theory  Cohen and Felson (1979) o Crime is understood in terms of the routine activities of every day life such was what we do, where we go, and who we interact with o Argues that victim and offender lifestyles contribute to both the amount and type of crime within society o Three characteristics must be present for crime to occur  A motivated offender  One who plans to commit a crime  A suitable target  Potential victim  Lack of capable guardian o Found changes in daily activities led to higher crime  More people worked outside of the home  Increases likelihood of exposure to would-be criminals in public places such as parking garages or bus stops  Also reduces the guardianship of one’s home and personal goods  Number of portable goods that are easier to steal increased  Electronics became lighter (e.g. televisions, phones) Deterrence Theory  “Rebirth” of the Classical School of thought in 1970s  Response to the apparent failure of rehabilitation o National surveys failed to show what methods worked regarding rehabilitation of offenders o Became more logical to frighten criminals with severe punishments  Retained the Classical School concept of punishment to deter crime  The modern notion of deterrence is consistent with Beccaria and Bentham o “Deterrence refers to any instance in which an individual contemplates a criminal act because he or she perceives some ricks of legal punishment.”  Informal deterrence o Negative reactions from others when they find out about the arrest/conviction of the offender  E.g. loss of jobs or friendships, divorce, social stigma  General deterrence o Crime control policy o Members of the public are deterred from committing crime when they fear the penalties  Specific deterrence o Offenders already punished will be deterred from repeating criminality due to fearing punishment o Goal of sentencing is to prevent a particular offender from engaging in repeat criminality  Criticisms of Classical/Rational Choice Theory o Shaped the course of criminological theory for hundreds of years o Criticisms of classical theory  Individuals do not always weight the costs/benefits of their actions  People do not always agree on what constitutes pleasure and pain o Oversimplifies the complexity of human interaction with the social environment – some crimes do not appear to be rational  Example: Burglary vs. Violence  Burglary tends to be very rational – individuals plot the time of day, ease of entrance, type of goods involved.  Violence is more difficult to explain – some individuals are more volatile than others and don’t always have a rational reason behind why they do what they do o Fails to account for the following  A wide variety of variables affecting an individual’s decision to engage in crime  Such as differences in biological and psychological factors  The impact of socialization, poverty, and social structure on crime  Socially disorganized neighborhoods vs. organized neighborhoods  Certain characteristics that may influence reasoning  Impulsiveness, drugs, alcohol  Policy Implications o Crime-prevention policies and procedures that rely on the classical/rational choice perspective o Situational Crime Prevention  Includes policies designed to make crime a more difficult and costly alternative  Reduce crime in high-risk neighborhoods by altering the physical and social environment where crime is prevalent  Key Elements o Increase the effort needed to commit the crime  Unbreakable glass  Motion-sensor lights  Door/steering wheel locks  Pictures on credit cards o Increase the perceived risk of committing the crime  Lights in neighborhoods  Increased presence of neighborhood watch  More police on patrol o Reduce the potential rewards of the crime  Banks have dye packets in money  GPS-tracking systems on vehicles o Reduce situations that provoke anger and aggression o Remove rationalizing excuses for committing crime – set clear examples  Signs that say “We prosecute shoplifters” or “this business is under surveillance” o Deterrence Strategies  General deterrence  Used to reduce crime and deviance by setting standards that apply to everyone  Key Strategies  Determine sentencing – fixed sentence for committing an offense  Random traffic stops – deter drunk driving  Specific deterrence  Intended to teach criminals a lesson  Key strategies  Mandatory minimum sentences – fixed jail terms for specific offenses  Truth in sentencing guidelines – offenders serve more than 80 percent of their sentence in prison before they can be released  Incapacitation strategies  Sentencing philosophy aimed to prevent (rather than deter) future offending  Incapacitation effect – increase number/percentage of population in jail/prison and reduce the crime rate


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.