CDFS Chapter 6 & 7
CDFS Chapter 6 & 7 CDFS 111
Long Beach State
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elizabeth Rubio on Saturday February 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CDFS 111 at California State University Long Beach taught by Lydia Grosso in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views.
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Date Created: 02/20/16
Early emotions •High emotional responsiveness •Reactive pain and pleasure to complex social awareness Smiling and laughing •Social smile (6 weeks): Evoked by viewing human faces •Laughter (3 to 4 months): Often associated with curiosity Anger •First expressed at around 6 months •Is healthy response to frustration Sadness •Appears in first months •Indicates withdrawal and is accompanied by increased production of cortisol •Is stressful experience for infants •Fear –Emerges at about 9 months in response to people, things, or situations •Stranger wariness –Seem as infant no longer smiles at any friendly face but cries or looks frightened when an unfamiliar person moves too close •Separation anxiety –Tears, dismay, or anger occur when a familiar caregiver leaves –If it remains strong after age 3, it may be considered an emotional disorder Selfawareness •Person's realization that he or she is a distinct individual whose body, mind, and actions are separate from those of other people. First 4 months •Infants have no sense of self and may see themselves as part of their mothers. 5 months •Infants begin to develop an awareness of themselves as separate from their mothers. 1518 months •Emergence of the Meself •Sense of self as the “object of one's knowledge” Mirror Recognition •Classic experiment (M. Lewis & Brooks, 1978) •Babies aged 9–24 months looked into a mirror after a dot of rouge had been put on their noses. •None of the babies younger than 12 months old reacted as if they knew the mark was on them. •15 to 24montholds showed selfawareness by touching their own noses with curiosity. Goodness of fit –Similarity of temperament and values that produces a smooth interaction between an individual and his or her social context, including family, school, and community Psychosocial Theory ERIKSON: Trust and autonomy stages •Trust versus mistrust –Infants learn basic trust if the world is a secure place where their basic needs are met •Autonomy versus shame and doubt –Toddlers either succeed or fail in gaining a sense of selfrule over their actions and their bodies Behaviorism BANDURA: Social learning theory •Parents mold an infant's emotions and personality through reinforcement and punishment –Behavior patterns acquired by observing the behavior of others –Demonstrated in the classic Bobo Doll study Sociocultural theory •Infant emotional development shaped by entire social and cultural context Ethnotheories •Theory underlying values and practices of a culture but is not usually apparent to the people within the culture Personal theories •Theories arising from family and personal history Proximal parenting •Caregiving practices that involve being physically close to the baby, with frequent holding and touching Distal parenting •Caregiving practices that involve remaining distant from the baby, providing toys, food, and facetoface communication with minimal holding and touching Synchrony •Coordinated, rapid, and smooth exchange of responses between a caregiver and an infant Synchrony in the first few months •Becomes more frequent and elaborate •Helps infants learn to read others' emotions and to develop the skills of social interaction •Usually begins with parents imitating infants •Lessons in emotion endure longer than do intellectual ones. •The 9monthold (top) knows she can make her mother laugh, and the 12monthold (bottom) knows he should sometimes worry, although he does not know why. Attachment •Involves lasting emotional bond that one person has with another •Begins to form in early infancy and influence a person's close relationships throughout life •Overtakes synchrony •Demonstrated through proximityseeking and contactmaintaining Secure attachment •Relationship (type B) in which infant obtains both comfort and confidence from the presence of his or her caregiver. Insecureavoidant attachment •Pattern of attachment (type A) in which infant avoids connection with the caregiver, as when the infant seems not to care about the caregiver's presence, departure, or return. Insecureresistant/ambivalent attachment –Pattern of attachment (type C) in which anxiety and uncertainty are evident, as when an infant becomes very upset at separation from the caregiver and both resists and seeks contact on reunion. Disorganized attachment –Type of attachment (type D) that is marked by an infant's inconsistent reactions to the caregiver's departure and return. Social referencing •Seeking emotional responses or information from other people •Observing someone else's expressions and reactions and using the other person as a social reference •Utilizing referencing in constant and selective ways Parental social referencing •Mothers use a variety of expressions, vocalizations, and gestures to convey social information to their infants. •Synchrony, attachment, and social referencing are all apparent with fathers, sometimes even more than with mothers. Proportion of infants in nonrelative care varies markedly from nation to nation. •Involvement of relatives other than mothers varies. •Worldwide, fathers are increasingly involved in infant care but this varies by culture. •Paid leave for mother and fathers (and grandmothers!) varies by nations. •In the U.S., paid leave varies by states and employers. Family day care •Child care that includes several children of various ages and usually occurs in the home of a woman who is paid to provide it. Center day care •Child care that occurs in a place especially designed for the purpose, where several paid adults care for many children. •Usually the children are grouped by age, the daycare center is licensed, and providers are trained and certified in child development. Sensorimotor intelligence •Piaget’s term for the way infants think—by using their senses and motor skills—during the first period of cognitive development Piaget •Infants are active learners. •Adaptation is the core of intelligence. Cognition develops in four distinct periods Assimilation •Type of adaptation in which new experiences are interpreted to fit into, or assimilate with, old ideas Accommodation •Type of adaptation in which old ideas are restructured to include, or accommodate, new experiences Stages one and two: Primary circular reactions •Circular reactions: Interaction of sensation, perception, and cognition •Primary circular reactions: Two stages of sensorimotor intelligence involving the infant’s own body •Stage one (Birth to 1month): Stage of reflexes •Stage two 1 to 4 months): First acquired adaptions or habits Infants adapt reflexes through information from repeated responses. Stages three and four: Secondary circular reactions •Secondary circular reactions: Interaction between baby and something else; mirror neurons begin to function •Stage three (48 months): Attempts to make interesting things last •Stage four (612 months): New adaptation and anticipation; means to the end Goaldirect behavior •Purposeful action that benefit from new motor skills resulting from brain maturation Object permanence •Realization that objects or people continue to exist when they are no longer in sight Stages five and six: Tertiary circular reactions •Tertiary circular reactions: Involves active exploration and experimentation; exploration of range of new activities and variations in responses as way of learning •Stage five (1218 months): New means through active exploration •Stage six (1824 months): Mental combinations; intellectual experimentation via imagination Many infants reach the stages of sensorimotor intelligence earlier than Piaget predicted. •Small sample size •Simplistic methods •Unseen brain activity Informationprocessing theory •Modeled on computer functioning •Involves incremental details and stepbystep description of the mechanisms of thought •Adds insight to understanding of cognition at every age Gibson and Gibson •Perception requires selectivity. •Affordances provide opportunity for perception and interaction that is offered by a person, place, or object in the environment. Selection of which affordance is perceived and acted upon is related to four factors. •Sensory awareness •Immediate motivation •Current development •Past experience Selective perception of affordances is also characteristic of every age and every culture. Visual cliff •Experimental apparatus that gives the illusion of a sudden dropoff between one horizontal surface and another •Infant performance depends on past experience, including social context Infant memory is fragile but can be activated with reminders, repetition, and retrieval cues. •According to classic developmental theory, infants store no memories in their first year (Freud/childhood amnesia). Developmentalists now agree that very young infants can remember if the following conditions are met: •Experimental conditions are similar to real life. •Motivation is high. •Special measures aid memory retrieval. He Remembers! •In this demonstration of RoveeCollier’s experiment, a young infant immediately remembers how to make the familiar mobile move. •Unfamiliar mobiles do not provoke the same reaction. •He kicks his right leg and flails both arms, just as he learned to do several weeks ago. Listening and responding •Before birth: Language learning via brain organization and hearing; may be innate •Newborn: Preference for speech sounds and mother’s language; gradual selective listening •Around 6 months: Ability to distinguish sounds and gestures in own language Infants •Can process information and store conclusions •Can remember specific events and patterns Early researchers underestimated infant memory. •Failure to differentiate between implicit and explicit memory •Do you know the difference? No. •The early stages of language involve communication through noises, gestures, and facial expressions, very evident here between this !Kung grandmother and granddaughter.• Universal sequence Timing of language acquisition varies but sequence is universal Babbling •Involves repetition of certain syllables, such as bababa, that begins when babies are between 6 and 9 months old •Is experienceexpectant •Begins to sound like native language around 12 months Gesturing •All infants gesture. •Concepts with gesture are expressed sooner than speech. •Pointing emerges in human babies around 10 months. First words: Gradual beginnings At about 1 year: Speak a few words. 615 months: Understand 10 times more words than produced 12 months: Begin to use holophrases; recognize vocalization from universal to languagespecific Naming explosion Once spoken vocabulary reaches about 50 words, it builds quickly, at a rate of 50 to 100 words per month. 21montholds say twice as many words as 18monthold. Cultural differences in language use •Cultural and family variation exists in childdirected speech. •Infants seek best available language teachers. •Music tempo is culturespecific. Cultural differences in language use: Parts of speech •Ratio of nouns to verbs and adjectives varies. •Infants differ in use of various parts of speech. •Young children are sensitive to the sounds of words. Cultural differences in language use: Grammar •Includes all the devices by which words communicate meaning •Becomes obvious in holophrases between 18 and 24months & Correlates with size of vocabulary Mastering two languages •Quantity of speech in both languages the child hears is crucial. •Children implicitly track the number of words and phrases and learn those expressed most often. •Bilingual toddlers realize differences between languages, adjusting tone, pronunciation, cadence, and vocabulary when speaking to a monolingual person. Theory One: Infants need to be taught. •B. F. Skinner (1957) noticed that spontaneous babbling is usually reinforced. •Parents are expert teachers, and other caregivers help them teach children to speak. Frequent repetition of words is instructive, especially when the words are linked to the pleasures of daily life. Theory One: Infants need to be taught. •Welltaught infants become wellspoken children. •if adults want children who speak, understand, and (later) read well, they must talk to their infants. Theory Two: Social impulses fosters infant language. •Infants communicate because humans have evolved as social beings. •The emotional messages of speech, not the words, that are the focus of early communication. Theory Two: Social impulses fosters infant language. •Each culture has practices that further social interaction, including talking. •The social content of speech is universal, which is why babies learn whatever specifics their culture provides. Theory Three: Infants teach themselves •Language learning is innate; adults need not teach it, nor is it a byproduct of social interaction. •Language itself is experienceexpectant, although obviously the specific language is experience dependent. Theory Three: Infants teach themselves Chomsky •Language too complex to be mastered through stepbystep conditioning. •Language acquisition device (LAD) is innate. •All babies are eager learners, and language may be considered one more aspect of neurological maturation. All perspective offer insight into language acquisition. . Hybrid theory •Some aspects of language learning may be best explained by one theory at one age and other aspects by another theory at another age. •Multiple attentional, social and linguistic cues contribute to early language. •Different elements of the language apparatus may have evolved in different ways
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