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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jess Graff on Saturday February 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BMS 508 at University of New Hampshire taught by Mary Katherine Lockwood, PhD in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology II in Biological Sciences at University of New Hampshire.
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Date Created: 02/20/16
BMS 508.03 2/5/2016 Chapter 18 (cont) Endocrine System (cont) Pancreas (cont) • Kidney Degeneration • Diabetic nephropathy • Degenerative changes in the kidneys can lead to kidney failure • Retinal Damage • Diabetic retinopathy • The proliferation of capillaries and hemorrhaging at the retina may cause partial or complete blindness • Early Heart Attacks • Degenerative blockages in cardiac circulation can lead to early heart attacks • For a given age group, heart attacks are 3-5 times more likely in diabetic individuals than in nondiabetic people • Peripheral Nerve Problems • Abnormal blood flow to neural tissues is probably responsible for a variety of neural problems with peripheral nerves, including abnormal autonomic function • These disorders are collectively termed diabetic neuropathy • Peripheral Tissue Damage • Blood flow to the distal portions of the limbs is reduced, and peripheral tissues may suffer as a result • Example: a reduction in blood flow to the feet can lead to tissue death, ulceration, infection, and loss of toes or a major portion of one or both feet Endocrine Tissues of Other Systems • Many Organs of Other Body Systems Have Secondary Endocrine Functions • Intestines (digestive system) • Kidneys (urinary system) • Heart (cardiovascular system) • Thymus (lymphatic system and immunity) • Gonads (reproductive system) • The Intestines • Produce hormones important to coordination of digestive activities • The Kidneys • Produce the hormones calcitriol and erythropoietin (EPO) • Produce the enzyme renin • The Heart • Produces natriuretic peptides (ANP and BNP) • When blood volume becomes excessive • Action opposes angiotensin II • Resulting in reduction in blood volume and blood pressure • The Thymus • Produces thymosins (blend of thymic hormones) • Help develop and maintain normal immune defenses • The Gonads • Testes • Produce androgens in interstitial cells • Testosterone is the most important male hormone • Secrete inhibin in nurse cells • Support differentiation and physical maturation of sperm • Ovaries • Produce estrogens • Principal estrogen is estradiol • After ovulation, follicle cells: • Reorganize into corpus luteum • Release estrogens and progestins, especially progesterone • Adipose Tissue Secretions • Leptin • Feedback control for appetite • Controls normal levels of GnRH, gonadotropin synthesis Hormone Interactions • Hormones Interact to Produce Coordinated Physiological Responses • When a cell receives instructions from two hormones at the same time, 4 outcomes are possible 1. Antagonistic effects – opposing 2. Synergistic effects – additive 3. Permissive effects – 1 hormone is necessary for another to produce effect 4. Integrative effects – hormones produce different and complementary results • Hormones Important to Growth • Growth hormone (GH) • Thyroid hormones • Insulin • PTH and calcitriol • Reproductive hormones • Growth Hormone (GH) • In children: 1. Supports muscular and skeletal development • In adults: 1. Maintains normal blood glucose concentrations 2. Mobilizes lipid reserves • Thyroid Hormones • If absent during fetal development or for first year: 1. Nervous system fails to develop normally 2. Mental retardation results • If T4concentrations decline before puberty: 1. Normal skeletal development will not continue • Insulin • Allows passage of glucose and amino acids across plasma membranes • Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) and Calcitriol • Promote absorption of calcium salts for deposition in bone • Inadequate levels cause weak and flexible bones • Reproductive Hormones • Androgens in males, estrogens in females • Stimulate cell growth and differentiation in target tissues • Produce gender-related differences in: 1. Skeletal proportions 2. Secondary sex characteristics • The Hormonal Responses to Stress • General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) 1. AKA stress response 2. How body responds to stress-causing factors 3. Divided into 3 phases • Alarm phase • Resistance phase • Exhaustion phase
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